Ephesians 5:14: Do Those spiritually Dead Have the Ability to Arise?

Thus briefly we consider this forth difficulty to have been loosed. But from the response to the same just now given a fifth Question spontaneously arises, which I enumerated in § 1 as worthy of careful consideration, namely, In what manner the spiritually dead are able to be made mindful to awake and arise? I respond, 1.  the divine commandments and admonitions are not the measure of our strength, but they show us our appropriate duty, even if we have lost the strength to fulfill it in Adam.  2.  In the resurrection of the dead to natural life we find that the Lord everywhere also makes use of His resounding voice, Mark 5:41; Luke 7:14; John 11:43, while nevertheless these dead men, as long as they be such, were in no way able to hear or understand that voice.  It is not so strange that the Spirit commands those that were asleep and dead in sins to awake and arise:  since these, however they might be without spiritual life and sense, nevertheless enjoy the natural faculty of hearing and understanding.  3.  We saw in § 17 by these words not only were the unregenerate made mindful of their duty, but those truly believing also; but the latter were provided with life and spiritual strength in Christ through the Spirit of life, and hence they as second causes are actually able to comply with this divine admonition.  4.  Moreover, the unregenerate are either reprobate or chosen unto salvation.  With respect to the former, who while this life lasts are ignorant of that, their most miserable state, perhaps with those that have sinned against the Holy Spirit excepted; admonitions of this sort make for their conviction and greater ἀναπολογησίαν/inexcusability:[1]  while the fault of their impotence does not rest on God; and on the other hand, although they are wont inanely to presume much concerning their own strength, they refuse to yield to divine admonitions, in which manner they aggravate their guilt.  Now, with respect to the yet unregenerate elect of God, admonitions of this sort to awake from sleep, to arise from spiritual death, are moral means subservient to the omnipotent grace of God, the Changer of hearts; such that, while God supernaturally and internally, in a completely divine manner of operating, in predetermined moments grants life and spiritual strength, in comparison with 2 Corinthians 3:5; Ephesians 1:19, 20, He at the same time externally, in a moral manner accommodated to the nature of a rational creature, sets forth to man his duty, displays the comeliness of it, urges it with threats and promises:  so that man might know what he must do, and, knowing his natural impotence, might in earnest prayers entreat form God repentance unto life and strength[2] for yielding to all His commandments, and then might make use of the granted strength to submit most willingly to the call of God, and to work out his own salvation, while God is at work in Him both to will and to work for His own good pleasure.[3]  See the Heidelburg Catechism IX;[4] MARCKIUS’ Compendium Theologiæ, chapter XV, § 26, chapter XXIII, § 7-9, 11, 12; and the Præfationem which I set down before my Dutch Commentary on 2 Peter, chapter I.  PAREUS on this passage:  “Why does He then command, if it is not in our power?  Response:  So that by commanding He might excite us, and move us to do that which He wills to do in us:  and because He wills to bless those obeying the command.”  CALOVIUS on this passage:  “For the rest, the things that are commanded are not therefore able to be done by us and our own strength, simply because they are commanded by God:  we certainly gather our obligation from the divine precept; but we are not able certainly to conclude our ability to fulfill it.”  The observation is quite appropriate, that the divine admonition in the text, turning into ardent prayers, which are in Novo Testamento Gallico cum Observationibus moralibus, which are owed to QUESNEL, is subjoined to our text in these words:  But, Lord, does it not belong to thy light to go and seek the idle, who turns away to avoid seeing; to awaken the one that sleep through the forgetfulness of God and His salvation, and to open his eyes; to resurrect the dead and hardened heart that hates the light; to give him eyes to see it and a willingness to love it? It is unquestionably thine own light that goes before, and prepares the heart in which it intends to dwell.  Let this divine light of thine shine in our hearts, that it might work there, and dispel our darkness!  Which prayer depends upon those things that have been asserted in the observations immediately preceding concerning the natural misery and impotence of man, and which the Bull of Clement XI, wont to be called Unigenitus, condemned without good cause,[5] thesis XLVIII.

[1] See Romans 1:20; 2:1.

[2] See Acts 11:18; 2 Corinthians 7:10.

[3] See Philippians 2:12, 13.

[4] Heidelburg Catechism 9: Doth not God then do injustice to man, by requiring from him in His law, that which he cannot perform? Not at all; for God made man capable of performing it; but man, by the instigation of the devil, and his own wilful disobedience, deprived himself and all his posterity of those divine gifts.

[5] Pope Clement XI, born Giovanni Francesco Albani (1649-1721), reigned as Pope from 1700 to 1721.  He was a patron of learning and the arts.  He issued the Bull Unigenitus in 1713 against Jansenists.

Ephesians 5:14: To Whom Is the Exhortation Addressed?

The fourth ζήτημα/question that I proposed in § 1 is, Whether the speech here is directed to the regenerate and believing alone; or to the unregenerate, who, in a natural state after the fall, yet lie insensible in their errors and sins in the sleep of spiritual death? An answer to this question is almost able to be returned from those things that have already been set forth in § 11 for the illustration of the oracle of Isaiah, Isaiah 60:1-3.  That the twofold or repeated admonition of Paul is to be referred to the same class of men, by whom it was to be turned into practice, I think to be sufficiently evident, because the address is made under only one name, ὁ καθεύδων, thou that sleepest, to which καθεύδοντι/sleeper it is commanded, ἔγειρε καὶ ἀνάστα ἐκ τῶν νεκρῶν, awake and arise from the dead.  Moreover, one may observe that a twofold metaphorical expression occurs here, whereby, if we wish to speak properly, the Apostle will exhort to conversion and repentance:  it is well-known that grand duty of the sinner eager for salvation is wont to be set forth in diverse metaphorical expression, borrowed from natural matters quite diverse.  But, that Repentance and Conversion are either first, or second and daily:  that hence this same duty in the same words is wont to be imposed both on natural men, hitherto destitute of all spiritual life, faith, and practice of good works, who require a change of their entire state and life; and on regenerate believers, but either fallen again into a great sin, or, because of the indwelling remnants of native corruption and the flesh, still often, indeed daily, stumbling and tottering, who hence always have a need to put off and cast away the relics of the old man:  novices have learned from the first principles of theological training.  Thus in particular both sleep and death are common emblems in the Sacred Books, both of the natural state of misery after the fall, comparing Romans 13:11; 1 Thessalonians 5:6; Matthew 8:22; Ephesians 2:1; and of spiritual torpor and carnal security in the regenerate, through which these are yet made like unto ψυχικοῖς/sensual men externally, comparing Song of Solomon 5:2; Matthew 25:5; Revelation 3:1:  just as sleep elsewhere comes figuratively for the natural death of the body, comparing John 11:11, 13; 1 Corinthians 11:30, and is able to be used metaphorically in various respects, either for the cessation of natural life simply (see ÆLIAN’S[1] Variam Historiam, book II, chapter XXXV, Ὁ Γοργίας ἔφη· Ἤδη με ὁ ὕπνος ἄρχεται παρακατατίθεσθαι τῷ ἀδελφῷ, Gorgias[2] said, Just now sleep is going to deliver me up to his brother, SCHEFFER[3] everywhere), or for the welcome peace and refreshment that believers enjoy in death, or for the want of spiritual life and motion and the errors arising thereupon:  and both sleep and death are able to be taken in a spiritual sense more or less intensively, either of a total lack of life and activity, or of the remainders of native corruption and of the very tenuous indications of spiritual life, but through which one, himself ἡμιθανὴς/half-dead and quite similar to the dead, escapes.  Moreover, in the same manner the situation holds with the duties that will be prescribed to the sleeping and the dead of this sort, Awake and rise from the dead; in which words the Apostle summarily requires that sleepers, with torpor shaken off, show themselves living and eager in fulfilling every good work in a manner agreeable to the welcome day that had begun to dawn upon them; an admonition of which sort again is able to be directed both to natural men and to regenerate and believing men according to the style of Sacred Scripture, each of whom according to that is bound to comport himself in a manner in keeping with his spiritual state, comparing 2 Timothy 2:26; John 5:25 in comparison with John 11:43; Romans 13:11; 1 Corinthians 15:34; Romans 6:13; Revelation 3:2.  But I think that now the Apostolic use of this prophetic admonition in our text, which appeared to have been established skillfully and in a manner agreeable to the argument of the Isaianic prophecy in § 11, implies of itself that men, hitherto altogether destitute of spiritual life and devoid of faith and every truly good work, understand the same thing to be said to them in the fullest sense and with the utmost emphasis; but that at the same time true believers, spiritual men, hence learn to walk worthily of their state and vocation, and gather just how disgraceful it is for them to return to their former state of spiritual sleep and death; and so they shake off all torpor and sloth, watch against the weakness and slowness of the flesh, and proceed in subjugating the remnants of native corruption, and in exercising whatever spiritual operations pleasing to God with the greatest alacrity.  Neither on that account does any inane tautology, unworthy of the sacred Writer, obtain here, although the twofold admonition be referred to the same subjects, each in their own way, and exhort to one great duty in the totality of the matter.  But the Apostle thus makes use of synonymy or exergasia, a figure well-known to Rhetoricians, and common and a favorite to all the best writers; so that this admonition might sound so much more gravely and eloquently, and under a twofold, diverse metaphor there might depict more elegantly and vividly their miserable native and former state, from which he wishes to turn each one, and their holy and fitting duty, which he is eager to inculcate concerning the same.  That to this matter the force of the words קוּם/arise and ἐγείρεσθαι/arise furnished amply opportunity, which are used of the rousing and aring from sleep and death equally, has already been treated in § 11.  And that by the emblem of sleep conjoined with the state of death there is no lessening of the magnitude of native corruption, of the impotence of man in the state of the fall to accomplish spiritual good, and of the divine power requisite for the conversion of man, TRIGLAND warns against the Remonstrants, Antapologia, chapter XXXI, page 432a; but, as these things are signified by the emblem of death and of resurrection and vivification from that by the Spirit; so he observes that the emblem of sleep especially makes for the detestable idleness of man to be converted.  CHRYSOSTOM, in Epistolam ad Ephesios, homily XVIII, page 128, tome II, the edition of Montfaucon:  Διὸ λέγει, ἔγειραι ὁ καθεύδων, καὶ ἀνάστα ἐκ τῶν νεκρῶν, καὶ ἐπιφαύσει σοι ὁ Χριστός· καθεύδοντα καὶ νεκρὸν, τὸν ἐν ἁμαρτίαις φησί· καὶ γὰρ δυσωδίας πνεῖ, ὡς ὁ νεκρὸς, καὶ ἀνενεργητός ἐστιν, ὡς ὁ καθεύδων, καὶ οὐδὲν ὁρᾷ, ὡς ἐκεῖνος, ἀλλ᾽ ὀνειρώττει καὶ φαντάζεται. Ἀλλ᾽ οὐ περὶ τῶν ἀπίστων τοῦτο μόνον φασί· πολλοὶ γὰρ τῶν πιστῶν, οὐδὲν ἧττον τῶν ἀπίστων τῆς κακίας ἔχονται· εἰσὶ δὲ, οἱ καὶ πολλῷ μᾶλλον. διὸ καὶ πρὸς τούτους ἀναγκαῖον εἰπεῖν, ἔγειραι ὁ καθεύδων, καὶ ἀνάστα ἐκ τῶν νεκρῶν, καὶ ἐπιφαύσει σοι ὁ Χριστός, Wherefore he saith, Awake thou that sleepest, and arise from the dead, and Christ shall give thee light: By the sleeper and the dead, he means the man that is in sin; for he both exhales foul odors like the dead, and is inactive like one that is asleep, and like him he sees nothing, but is dreaming and forming illusions.  But he is not saying this of unbelievers only, for many believers, no less than unbelievers, are held fast by wickedness; indeed, some far more. Therefore, to these also it is necessary to exclaim, Awake thou that sleepest, and arise from the dead, and Christ shall give thee light.

[1] Claudius Ælianus (c. 175-c. 235) was a Roman rhetorician and teacher.

[2] Gorgias (c. 485-c. 380 BC) was a Greek Sophist of Leontini, Sicily.

[3] Johannes Schefferus (1621-1679) was a Swedish humanist.  Schefferus produced notes on some portions of Ælian’s Variæ Historiæ.

Rutherford Reading Group: Lex Rex

Interested in working your way through Samuel Rutherford’s Lex Rex?  Let’s do it together!

Given the current political context, climate, and crisis, it has never been more important for Christians to come to sound, Biblical notions concerning public and political matters.  We have endeavored to master some of the basics together.

In order to develop and mature in this regard, to go beyond the basics, some serious study of the best literature on the subject is going to be necessary.  And certainly Samuel Rutherford’s Lex Rex is among the best and most advanced works on Christian Political Theory.

However, Lex Rex is also famously difficult; so, I am proposing that we form a reading group, so that we might work our way through it together, as a community of disciples, with all of the mutual help and enrichment of thought that community-life affords.

Basic structure of the Reading Group:  Lex Rex is divided in forty-four questions.  If we handle a question roughly a question per week, we should finish in about a year.  I will set up and moderate a discussion board, so that we can discuss in writing the ideas presented; but we can also schedule live discussion time (through gotomeeting.com) to work on the more difficult chapters (which will be most of them) together.  Let’s set a start date of January 8, 2018.

Currently, I am trying to gauge the interest in the reading group, so, if you are interested, please let me know right away (visit the page, and drop me an email at dildaysc@aol.com).

Ephesians 5:14: Are “the Sleepers” and “the Dead” One and the Same?

I advised in § 1 that it is able to be asked in the third place, Whether in our text by the words ὁ καθεύδων, thou that sleepest, and νεκρῶν, the dead, two different sorts of men are set forth to us?  NICHOLAS DE LYRA does not appear to think so, giving this paraphrase of the text:  “Awake thou that sleepest, in the languor brought on by sin. And arise from the dead, in separating thyself from unbelievers, who are called dead men, Matthew 8, Send ye the dead to bury their dead.”  But in this opinion others are better versed, who assert that the speech in this admonition is uniquely directed to regenerate men, believers, those already made partakers of spiritual life; but who were made drowsy and seized with spiritual lukewarmness and torpor, especially because of their too familiar relations with the dead, with ψυχικοῖς, Πνεῦμα μὴ ἔχουσι, sensual men, not having the Spirit,[1] to whom they were also rendered very similar:  which sort are indeed living, but as sleepers shall be roused in the text so that they might awake, and, by arising from the midst of the dead, separate themselves from their communion.  But I do not believe that in the Sacred Books this is the sense of this common enough expression, arising, resurrection or resuscitation ἐκ or ἀπὸ τῶν νεκρῶν, from the dead.  It may indeed be allowed thus to interpret this expression concerning the resuscitation and resurrection from the midst of the dead, when it is used of individual men, who are restored to life by divine power through miracle; and especially concerning Christ the Lord Himself (of whom this phraseology is frequently used, see MARCKIUS’ Historiam Exaltationis Jesu Christi, book I, chapter I, § 5, 6), who both after the fulfillment of His suretyship was loosed from the chains of death by His Father acting as Judge, and, having tasted death, arose to life by His own ἐξουσίᾳ/authority and δυνάμει/power; while the rest, having died, remained asleep under the power of death.  But the same manner of speech presents itself in the Sacred Books concerning the absolutely universal Resuscitation and Resurrection of the dead at the consummation of the ages, Mark 12:25, ὅταν γὰρ ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀναστῶσιν, οὔτε γαμοῦσιν, οὔτε γαμίσκονται, etc., for when they shall arise from the dead, they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, etc.; Luke 20:35, οἱ δὲ καταξιωθέντες τοῦ αἰῶνος ἐκείνου τυχεῖν καὶ τῆς ἀναστάσεως τῆς ἐκ νεκρῶν οὔτε γαμοῦσιν οὔτε ἐκγαμίσκονται, but they which shall be accounted worthy to obtain that world, and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry, nor are given in marriage; Acts 4:2, καταγγέλλειν ἐν τῷ Ἰησοῦ τὴν ἀνάστασιν τὴν ἐκ νεκρῶν, that they preached through Jesus the resurrection of the dead.  But, since in the last Resurrection on that day absolutely no dead will remain in graves and dust, but all at the same time, the impious and the just, will revive, the ἀνάστασις ἀπὸ or ἐκ νεκρῶν, resurrection from the dead, in this case is not able to be explained of the Resurrection from the midst of dead men that continue to be such:  but it is to be said, either that in this expression a concrete has been posited in the place of an abstraction, νεκροὺς, dead men, in the place of θανάτῳ/death; or that the expression is elliptical, so that from the dead is the same as from the state or condition of the dead.  Moreover, that this same expression repeated so many times in the New Testament concerning the bodily Resurrection, whether the speech be made of individual persons, or the universal Resurrection, is to be taken everywhere in the same manner, rather than in diverse manners, since it is able to be done agreeably, everyone will readily agree, I suppose:  but it will be done, where ἀνάστασις ἀπὸ or ἐκ νεκρῶν, resurrection from the dead, is always explained, not of a Resurrection from the midst of the dead, but from the dead, or from the state and condition of the dead.  Thus by that added ἀπὸ or ἐκ τῶν νεκρῶν, from the dead, the sort of Resurrection, which is able to be various, and both of the living and of the dead, shall be better determined; to which we are emphatically led by the article repeated in this expression in the passaged cited above, Luke 20:35; Acts 4:2, ἡ ἀνάστασις ἡ ἐκ νεκρῶν, the resurrection that is from the dead.  Thus everyone arising ἀπὸ or ἐκ τῶν νεκρῶν, from the dead, all the way to the moment of this Resurrection shall be indicated, not only to have dwelt in the fellowship of the dead, but also to have been liable to death, and devoid of that life to which he is returned through the Resurrection; such that concerning all that will rise ἀπὸ or ἐκ τῶν νεκρῶν, from the dead, it is able to be said that νεκροὶ ἐγείρονται, the dead are raised up, Matthew 11:5; Luke 20:37.  With marked emphasis Paul thus urges the sort of Christ’s Resurrection, which was a Resurrection from death, so that he might place the possibility of a Resurrection of the dead beyond all controversy, 1 Corinthians 15:12, εἰ δὲ Χριστὸς κηρύσσεται ὅτι ἐκ νεκρῶν ἐγήγερται, πῶς λέγουσί τινες ἐν ὑμῖν ὅτι ἀνάστασις νεκρῶν οὐκ ἔστιν, Now if Christ be preached that he rose from the dead, how say some among you that there is no resurrection of the dead?; Similarly the sort of the Rousing of a son not from the σώματι καὶ μήτρᾳ νενεκρωμένῃ, dead body and womb, of parents, in comparison with Romans 4:19, but from death itself, which Abraham did not at all believe exceeded the Divine Power, the Apostle points out in Hebrews 11:19, relating concerning the father of the faithful that λογισάμενος ὅτι καὶ ἐκ νεκρῶν ἐγείρειν δυνατὸς ὁ Θεός, he reckoned that God was able to raise him from the dead.  But it is fair to believe now that this phrase, while it is transferred from its proper signification to another on account of similitude, as it happens in our text, preserves and imitates the character of the expression taken more in the proper and corporal sense:  hence ἀνάστασις ἐκ τῶν νεκρῶν, resurrection from the dead, in this place is also to be explained, not of Resurrection from the midst of the dead, but of Rising from death, or from the state or condition of the dead.  And so by καθεύδοντα, one sleeping, not another sort of man, indeed one of a far better condition, shall be indicated to us than by νεκροὺς, the dead:  but, when ὁ καθεύδων, the one sleeping, is commanded ἀναστῆναι ἐκ τῶν νεκρῶν, to arise from the dead, he is to be contemplated as one that hitherto is dwelling in death or the condition of the dead.  In this sense you will best interpret the similar metaphorical expression in Roman 6:13, παραστήσατε ἑαυτοὺς τῷ Θεῷ ὡς ἐκ νεκρῶν ζῶντας, yield yourselves unto God, as thouse alive from the dead; in Romans 11:15, εἰ γὰρ ἡ ἀποβολὴ αὐτῶν καταλλαγὴ κόσμου, τίς ἡ πρόσληψις, εἰ μὴ ζωὴ ἐκ νεκρῶν, For if the casting away of them be the reconciling of the world, what shall the receiving of them be, but life from the dead?; in which passages the present life is opposed to the preceding condition of death, which in the same subjects now living had previously obtained; rather than that by νεκροὺς, the dead, the past fellowship of these living men might be nakedly indicated.  The Most Illustrious MARCKIUS went before us in this observation, Exercitationibus Miscellaneis, Disputation VII, text IX, page 300, where you may read:  “Nothing is more evident than that the concrete name of the dead is commonly put in the place of the abstraction death, where resurrection is treated, when it is everywhere read of rising or resurrection from the dead, ἀπὸ τῶν νεκρῶν, ἐκ τῶν νεκρῶν, ἐκ νεκρῶν, Matthew 14:2;[2] 17:9;[3] 27:64;[4] 28:7;[5] etc.  So that you might not object to these and similar passages that, not the state of the dead, but other dead men are signified, from whom by rising one is removed or separated, behold another, when the universal resurrection of all, in which none shall be left in their tomb, is set forth by the same phrase, Marke 12:25, compared with Luke 20:35, and likewise Acts 4:2.  Nothing is clearer than that the state of death is indicated in Romans 6:13; 11:15; Ephesians 5:14, Arise from the dead.  Neither is that express harsh, since men raised from the dead are made alive, and by change of state cease to be dead.  Unless you would rather that the expression be elliptical, with the substantive of state or condition to be understood.”

[1] Jude 19.

[2] Matthew 14:2:  “And said unto his servants, This is John the Baptist; he is risen from the dead (αὐτὸς ἠγέρθη ἀπὸ τῶν νεκρῶν); and therefore mighty works do shew forth themselves in him.”

[3] Matthew 17:9:  “And as they came down from the mountain, Jesus charged them, saying, Tell the vision to no man, until the Son of man be risen again from the dead (ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀναστῇ).”

[4] Matthew 27:64:  “Command therefore that the sepulchre be made sure until the third day, lest his disciples come by night, and steal him away, and say unto the people, He is risen from the dead (ἠγέρθη ἀπὸ τῶν νεκρῶν):  so the last error shall be worse than the first.”

[5] Matthew 28:7:  “And go quickly, and tell his disciples that he is risen from the dead (ἠγέρθη ἀπὸ τῶν νεκρῶν); and, behold, he goeth before you into Galilee; there shall ye see him:  lo, I have told you.”

Whence the Words of Ephesians 5:14? Part 10

c.  Finally, with respect to the promise occurring in Isaiah 59:20, וּבָ֤א לְצִיּוֹן֙ גּוֹאֵ֔ל וּלְשָׁבֵ֥י פֶ֖שַׁע בְּיַֽעֲקֹ֑ב נְאֻ֖ם יְהוָֽה׃, and the Redeemer shall come to Zion, and unto them that turn from transgression in Jacob, saith Jehovah, to which the Apostle appeals in Romans 11:26, καὶ οὕτω πᾶς Ἰσραὴλ σωθήσεται, καθὼς γέγραπται· Ἥξει ἐκ Σιὼν ὁ ῥυόμενος, καὶ ἀποστρέψει ἀσεβείας ἀπὸ Ἰακώβ, and so all Israel shall be saved: as it is written, There shall come out of Sion the Deliverer, and shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob; not even does this evince that the argument of the following chapter, Isaiah 60, is to be referred only to the last times of the New Testament. Indeed, by some a two-part prophecy is not unskillfully observed here; the former concerning the Advent of the Goel to Zion, for Zion’s sake, for the good of Zion, which the expound of the Advent of Messiah in the flesh to procure Redemption: the other, subjoined to the former by the connective and progressive ו/and, concerning the bodily Advent of Messiah to apply the procured Redemption especially to those to be converted by His grace among the posterity of Jacob at the end of days:  to which latter promise of these words the citation made by Paul is especially to be referred; whence perhaps in the place of לְצִיּוֹן, to Zion, which the Septuagint rendered ἕνεκεν Σιὼν, for Zion’s sake, in the Apostle it is ἐκ Σιὼν, from Zion, upon which see FRANCIS JUNIUS’ Parallela:  unless this come to be attributed to a joining together of more than one prophetic oracle in the Pauline text, as the Most Illustrious VITRINGA supposes in his Commentario on this passage.  But it is also rightly said concerning the sense of this passage, just as we also advised concerning the argument of chapter 60 in § 14, that the promise occurs here in the greatest fullness, which sends forth a most abundant sense, and which began to be fulfilled in the Advent of the Messiah to the Church through the Incarnation, the purchase of Redemption, and the beginning of the erection of the kingdom promised to the Θεανθρώπῳ/God-man, through which He lured to His saving communion from Israel λεῖμμα κατ᾽ ἐκλογὴν χάριτος, a remnant according to the election of grace, which, says the Apostle, γέγονε καὶ ἐν τῷ νῦν καιρῷ, is also at this present time, Romans 11:5, and which will be able to reckoned finally complete ἐν τελειώσει, in fulfillment, and perfectly, when at the end of days πᾶς Ἰσραὴλ σωθήσεται, all Israel shall be saved, which Paul by his divine wisdom taught us to expect from this prophecy taken in the full extent of its sense.  This exegesis is confirmed from a comparison of the verse immediately following in Paul, Romans 11:27, καὶ αὕτη αὐτοῖς ἡ παρ᾽ ἐμοῦ διαθήκη, ὅταν ἀφέλωμαι τὰς ἁμαρτίας αὐτῶν, for this is my covenant unto them, when I shall take away their sins, in which perhaps the Apostle has regard to several other pericopes of the prophetic Word, but most probably also to Jeremiah 31:33, 34, which promise the Apostle in Hebrews 8:6-13 referred to the renovation of the economy of the Covenant of Grace with the first, personal Advent of Messiah:  but he will indicate a further fulfillment of the same at a later time in the yet expected conversion of the Jews, Romans 11:27.  Thus WITSIUS, in Meletematis Leudensiis, Dissertation IX, § 8, “One and the same prophecy finds its fulfillment in a remarkable variety of times.  Thus, what was predicted in Isaiah 59:20, The Redeemer shall come to Zion and to those converted from defection in Jacob, began to be fulfilled when Christ, coming in the flesh, brought everlasting righteousness;[1] but it will also be fulfilled in the future, universal conversion of the Jews to Christ, Romans 11:26.  So also in Isaiah 65:17, Behold, I am going to create new heavens and a new earth, was fulfilled in the renovation of the Church through the preaching of the Gospel and the effusion of the Holy Spirit; but it is also going to be fulfilled on the last day, 2 Peter 3:12, 13.  And in Jeremiah 31:31, Behold, the days are going to come, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah, began to be fulfilled when with the Old Testament abrogated the New Testament was substituted, Hebrews 8:13; but it shall fulfilled at a distance, when the house of Israel and the house of Judah conjointly will possess the goods of that covenant, never again to be defrauded of them.  And the parable of the gathering of the dispersed bones, and vivification of the dry bones, Ezekiel 37, began to be fulfilled through the leading of the people out of Babylonian captivity; but the consummation of the fulfillment in both advents of Christ:”  compare FRANCIS JUNIUS’ Parallela; SCHMIDT on Isaiah; CALOVIUS’ Biblia illustrate on Romans 11:26, 27; RIDDER’S Schriftuurlyk Licht; HELLENBROEK on Jesaiam, part IV, pages 941-944, 963; DAVID MARTIN on Romans 11:26, 27; DINANT on Ephesians 5:14, page m. 146, 147.  It is not agreeable to add more things in response to the Question, Whence the words that occur in Ephesians 5:14 might be borrowed.

[1] See Daniel 9:24.

Whence the Words of Ephesians 5:14? Part 9

b.  We refer Revelation 21 and 22, not to some glorious state of the militant Church yet to be expected on earth, but in these chapters we believe a vivid delineation of the Church gloriously triumphing in heaven is represented; after the holding of the final, universal Judgment, and through that the delivery of the enemies of the Church to eternal destruction, which from the very vision exhibited in chapter 20 John has most clearly described. But if in depicting these things the Apostle John borrowed some phrases from Isaiah, and he is here to be designated as an Interpreter of Isaiah; one may retort that John thus attended to the fulfillment of the prophecy of Isaiah, not begun in this world sooner or later, but final, perfect, and consummate in heaven: as thus many prophecies of the Prophets are fulfilled by parts, in a prior and latter time, partly on earth and partly in heaven, which the Most Illustrious VITRINGA also teaches, when he dwells upon the reconciliation of the text of 2 Peter 3:13 with Isaiah 65:17; 66:22.  Let us hear that Most Illustrious Man speaking in his Commentario on Isaiah 65:17:  “Certainly (says he) I do not deny that Peter among other places had this, our passage also before his eyes:  but I definitely think that Peter did not take the passage according to the primary Prophetic sense, upon which we are chiefly intent, but according to every sense and emphasis that it is able to be thought to lie hidden in the words of Isaiah (as the Writers of the New Testament also model repeated elsewhere):  when truly, and I do not deny it, that which he teaches concerning the physical obliteration of the heavens and the earth is involved in the Isaianic sentence.”  Unto the same purpose the same Illustrious VITRINGA wrote, in his Observationum Sacrarum, book IV, chapter XVI, § 23:  “I do not deny that those passages of Isaiah, first of all, are to be understood of some Economy or condition of the Church in this world, to be changed into another, better Economy or condition….  But this is to be observed, that Peter, according to the custom received by the Writers of the New Testament, considers the Blessedness of the Church, promised in these passages, in its τελειώσει/fulfillment, without which τελειώσει/ fulfillment that blessedness could not consist, and without respect to which that could not have been promised to the Church in that fullness and abundance of predictions that occur in Isaiah.  Evidently all the benefits that God furnishes for the Church in this world to perfect and bring to completion its state will receive their ἀποτέλεσμα/fulfillment in that most perfect and consummate state of the Church, which is to be revealed in the last time.  Therefore, whatever is promised to the Church in this world with great fullness and majesty of expression, truly it is promised to it with respect to that state of τελειώσεως/fulfillment:  and in short it appears thus to us, that the Holy Spirit was not going to make use of such full and emphatic expressions in describing those benefits, as He has done in these Chapters, as well as in Isaiah 32; 35; 49; 60; 61, and in many other passages of Prophecies both of the Old and of the New Testaments, unless the Spirit had had regard to this τελείωσιν/fulfillment.  While Peter certainly saw it much more clearly than we now understand that:  it is not to be marveled at that he relates this prophetcy to the ἀποτέλεσμα/ fulfillment of that state, to the beginning of which this prophecy is properly to be referred according to the mind of Isaiah.”  Thus the Most Illustrious VITRINGA supplies for us what things are able to be given in response to him, when elsewhere in reconciling Isaiah 60 with Revelation 21 and 22, expounded according to our opinion, he hesitates; and at the same time what things are conducive to commend our thoughts just now proposed concerning the sense of Isaiah 60, consult the Most Illustrious MARCKIUS’ Commentarium in Apocalypsin, and the Most Illustrious WESSELIUS’ Præfationem ante Analysin Belgicam Apocalypseos ex Marckii Commentario concinnatam a Reverendo Cornelius van Santvoort, **** 1-3.

Whence the Words of Ephesians 5:14? Part 8

So that I might respond to the proposed difficulties in order:

a.  With respect to the first, I observe that Isaiah in that sublimer, but especially well-known, prophetic style thus depicts that blessed state of the Church, to be gathered under the New Testament, in this chapter 60, so that from the very beginnings of that Economy the fulfillment of this Prophecy in great part was looked for; a fuller exhibition of which we expect day-by-day, but the perfect fulfillment of which, in all details, is rightly said to be reserved for heaven. Compare SCHMIDT and HELLENBROEK on Isaiah, and RIDDER’S Schriftuurlyk Licht. And so with the words of Isaiah Paul was able best, and according to the sense intended by the Holy Spirit, to stir up and to console the Gentiles to whom he was writing, called out through the Gospel to communion with God and Christ.  The Most Illustrious VITRINGA himself, in his Commentario on Isaiah 60:1, tome 2, page 802, asserts:  “There are those, says Jerome, that await in the future all these things that we relate as both to be ACCOMPLISHED IN PART, and to be completely fulfilled, after the first advent of the Savior unto the consummation of the World; they await them in the future, when, with the fullness of the Gentiles coming in, all Israel is to be saved:[1]  whose opinion is by no means to be despised, since we know that these things are to be fulfilled only spiritually, and not carnally.  He wrote this with complete accuracy, and this is the sense of the most ancient Doctors of the Church.  Jerome himself certainly professes that in his own time these things were only fulfilled IN PART, which I would gladly concede:  he was awaiting perfect fulfillment in the future.”  But if the Most Illustrious VITRINGA would gladly concede the argument the Isaiah 60 was fulfilled in part already in the time of Jerome; the prophecies occurring here ought also to have regard, according to the intention of the Spirit, in part to the time preceding the age of Jerome, and so to predict the gathering of the Church of Jews and Gentiles soon after the advent of Messiah.

[1] Romans 11:25, 26.

Whence the Words of Ephesians 5:14? Part 7

Moreover, I did not will to set before the eyes of the Reader this consensus of the most excellent Interpreters of divers ages and professions, so that by the prejudice of authority I might compel him, as it were, to embrace the opinion that pleases me more than the other: but so that I might show the reading in Paul occurring in the place that we are treating did not appear to so many most weighty Men so different from the manner received by the Writers of the New Testament of citing the text of the Old Testament κατὰ τὸν διάνοιαν, according to the sense, and not so precisely κατὰ τὸ ῥητὸν, according to the wording, since they judged that the words of the Apostle are easily able to be harmonized with those of Isaiah, Isaiah 60:1, 2, as alleged by him.  But, even if far more and weightier Doctors also should be inclined to this, their footsteps ought to be forsaken, if reasons supplied from the sacred text itself should validly obstruct, so as to prevent us from approving their opinion.  So some do indeed think, whom I shall endeavor to answer in a few words, lest, if I shall not have been able to remove their scruples, they should too greatly vex others.  1.  No one will hesitate any longer in this, that between the text of Isaiah 60:1, 2, and the words of Paul in Ephesians 5:14, there is such a great difference that the former is not able to be said to be alleged in the latter passage.  For I am confident that this difficulty has already been anticipated and taken away through those things that were observed in § 8, 11, 12.  2.  Likewise, through those things that we set forth in § 11, the other objection shall readily vanish, namely, that in Isaiah the speech is not directed to the same persons as in the Epistle to the Ephesians, many of whom were Gentiles, or converted from Gentilism.  3.  But it is believed that our opinion is most grievously pressed by the argument taken from the Time with which the prophecy of Isaiah 60 lines up; which is judged by many not to have regard to the beginnings of the New Testament, so that it might be able to be applied by the Apostle in due justice to believers then living; but that it is to be referred to the final generations of the New Economy alone, in which opinion COCCEIUS, VITRINGA, and others share.  But, α. even if we should support the same interpretation of the Isaianic context, we could nevertheless say with the same COCCEIUS in the words cited above in § 12, that the admonition of Paul in Ephesians 5:14 is taken from the words of Isaiah, but explicated and accommodated:  while the words of Isaiah taken simply contain a παραίνεσιν/exhortation, the twin of that which the Apostles sets forth here.  But, β. whence will the most learned Interpreters give it up as a settled point, that the Spirit of God had regard only to the final period of the New Economy in the grand speech that He speaks through Isaiah in Isaiah 60?  There are three things especially from which the patrons of that exegesis attempt to elicit this.  a.  They say that such magnificent and grand things are here predicted concerning the Church, that the fulfillment of the same according to the whole emphasis of the phrases has not hitherto appeared in the Church, and so is yet to be expected in the future.  b.  The Interpretation of this vision made by John in Revelation 21 and 22 is added, where he teaches that this new Jerusalem is not going to appear until the end of time, after the destruction of the Beast and Babylon.  c.  They manifestly think that the same is able to be gathered out of the connection of chapter 60 with chapter 59, in verse 20 of which Isaiah now prophesies concerning the Conversion of the Jewish Nation, hitherto rejected and delivered to the hardness of an unbelieving heart, a Coversion yet to be expected, according to the infallible exegesis of the Apostle Paul, Romans 11:26.

Whence the Words of Ephesians 5:14? Part 6

And since, with the precautions applied, that I advised in § 8 are to be observed time and again in the citation of the Old Testament made by the Writers of the New Testament, all things are plain and clear, if we establish that the words of Paul in Ephesians 5:14 were borrowed from the beginning of chapter of Isaiah 60; it is not at all strange that Interpreters, many and eminent, turned to this opinion, which affirms that the words of the Apostle in our text were fetched either completely or in the greatest part from the pericope of Isaiah just now mentioned.  Thus we heard in § 8 FRANCIS JUNIUS pronouncing in his Parallelis, whom see at greater length in the place cited by us above; and in the same place we saw GLASSIUS agreeing with this.  To these are added from the Papists THOMAS AQUINAS, CAJETAN, and ESTIUS.[1]  From the Lutherans LUCAS OSIANDER, ABRAHAM CALOVIUS, and MICHAEL WALTHER in his Harmonia Biblica on Ephesians 5:14, where he comments in this manner:  “Most with Francis Junius think that a finger is pointed to the passage in Isaiah 60:1….  To me also this is made very close to the truth; for, just as the Prophet there exhorts the Church to acknowledge the light of the Gospel, which has arisen upon it, with a thankful heart, and to walk in it; so also Paul exhorts the Ephesians, after the have been illuminated by Evangelical truth, to reject darkness and spiritual sleep, and to walk in that light.  Now, although the words in the Prophet sound somewhat different than those cited by the Apostle, nevertheless the sense in both places is clearly the same.  For, when the Prophet says, arise, Paul expresses that at greater length, and ἕνεκα, for the sake of, greater δεινότητος/forcefulness thus relates: Awake thou that sleepest, and arise from the dead, understanding the death of sin, which men are born, from which they are roused, when they begin to live piously.  When the Prophet writes, the Glory of Jehovah is risen upon thee, Paul explains it of Christ, concerning whom the Scripture elsewhere testifies in John 1:9 that He is the true Light, illuminating every man that cometh (I would rather read coming, referring back to Light) into this world.”  Additionally, JOHANN CHRISTIAN WOLF on this passage, of which after the weighing of the various opinions of others this is the epicrisis:  “And so I am unwilling to draw back from the force and notion of the phrase διὸ λέγει, wherefore He saith, even in this place, but rather to take part with those that think that the Apostle turned his gaze to Isaiah 60:1.  I acknowledge that not so much the words are related here, as the sense is expressed.  But this is sufficient, since it is evident that both Paul and the other Sacred Writers have thus done.”  Likewise JOHANN GOTTLOB CARPZOV in Critica Sacra Veteris Testamenti, where indeed in part I, chapter III, § 6, to objection X against the uncorrupted integrity of the Hebrew Codex of the Old Testament, an objection fetched from passages cited from the Old Testament, which are read differently in the New Testament, among other things he responds, page 121:  “Finally, in passage that are not clearly found in the Old Testament, and yet are cited in the New, careful attention is to be paid to the formula of citation.  For, such things are cited, not as written, but only as expressed by mouth, for example, Matthew 2:23, ὅπως πληρωθῇ τὸ ῥηθὲν διὰ τῶν προφητῶν, ὅτι Ναζωραῖος κληθήσεται, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophets, He shall be called a Nazarene.  Thus in Ephesians 5:14, διὸ λέγει, wherefore He saith (that is, the Lord, yet not precisely in the writings of the Old Testament, but now through me, or Christ in the days of His flesh), ἔγειρε, ὁ καθεύδων, etc., awake thou that sleepest, etc.”  But in part III, contra Pseudocriticam Whistoni, chapter II, § 4, concerning the fount and seat of the citations from the Old Testament in the New, he observes after other things:  “At the same time, a saying cited κατὰ τὸ ῥητὸν, according to the wording, in the Old Testament is nowhere found, but from that it is cited κατὰ τὸν διάνοιαν, according to the sense, or by consequence also, whence a lacuna or a corruption of the modern codex is not to be argued, but the force of the argument and the divine Logic of the Holy Spirit is to be discerned and elicited; to this regard is paid in Matthew 2:23, He shall be called a Nazarene, which is nowhere found in the Prophets ῥητῶς/verbatim, etc.:  likewise in 1 Timothy 5:18, the laborer is worthy of his reward, which words are deduced from the sense of the law in Leviticus 19:13 and Deuteronomy 24:14 and following:  and in Ephesians 5:14, which words are elicited from the sense of the prophecy in Isaiah 60:1.”  And in part III, contra Pseudocriticam Whistoni, chapter II, § 10, where, as an example of a passaged alleged out of the Old Testament in the New, which nevertheless today is altogether missing in the Old Testament, Ephesians 5:14 is cited by Whiston, CARPZOV answers in a similar manner on page 869:  “Indeed, the entire sense of Isaiah 60:1, 2 is evident, which Paul ahs ingeniously accommodated to his scope/purpose.”  Of Our Men, the Most Illustrious COCCEIUS has:  “Διὸ λέγει, wherefore he saith.  Grotius:  τὸ φῶς, the light, that is, the pious man.  And he thinks that they are not the words of Scripture.  But it is more suitable that they be a confirmation from the words of Scripture, but explicated and accommodated.  Isaiah 60:1, Arise, shine, for thy light is come, and the glory of the Lord is risen upon thee; if we should thus take it simply, the παραίνεσις/exhortation will be the twin of that which the Apostles sets forth here.”  In a time now passed, DANIEL TOSSANUS, a celebrated Theologian of the Palatinate, had also judged that the words of Paul in this place were repeated out of Isaiah 60, in his Prælectionibus in Epistlam ad Ephesios:  “But even if (says he) Jerome thinks that that saying in verse 14, Arise thou that sleepest, is nowhere found in Scripture; yet there is no doubt that he alluded to at least some passage of Scripture, and has interpreted paraphrastically, as it were:  and we happily refer this to that passage in Isaiah 60:1, in which, with the hope of the Savior and Protector of the Church depicted, he exhorts the Church to arise, that is, to raise itself, and to appear in order to acknowledge and enjoy the benefits of Christ when His light will have come, that is, the time of grace and renewal through Christ.”  But JOHN PISCATOR of Herborn in his Analysi of Ephesians 5 also wrote:  “In verse 14 he confirms the instituted exhortation by prophetic testimony; which appears to have been taken, although not verbatim, from Isaiah 60:1, 2.”  Among English Interpreters WALTON advises that here a citation of the text of Isaiah 60:1, or an allusion to the same, obtains.  HAMMOND thus παραφράζει/ paraphrases our verse:  “Verse 14:  According to the saying of Isaiah the Prophet, Isaiah 60:1, Arise, shine, for thy light is come, and the glory of the Lord is risen upon thee.  As it is signified that Christianity is the brightest day, as it were, the light and promises of which everyone will long to enjoy; it is fitting that there be a rejection of all dark and hidden lusts, of which men are ashamed in the open light.”  From whom LE CLERC does not dissent in his own Note:  “Διὸ λέγει, wherefore it/he saith:  γραφὴ/Scripture is to be understood, so that the passage in Isaiah might be indicated, cited paraphrastically in our text; the sense of which, rather than the words, is cited.”  Francis Junius is closely followed by WILLEM SURENHUSIUS in his Βίβλῳ Καταλλαγῆς, which see. The Reverend DAVID MARTIN thinks that the words were borrowed by the Apostle partly from Isaiah 26:19, and partly from Isaiah 60:1.  But again, that this Pauline pericope was fetched only from Isaiah 60:1, in view of the fact it approaches most nearly to the truth, is held by Reverend DINANT in his Commentari Belgico on Epistola ad Ephesios.

[1] William Estius (1542-1613) labored first as a lecturer on Divinity, then as the Chancellor at Doway.  Theologically, he bears the imprint of the modified Augustinianism of Michael Baius.  In his commentary writing, as exemplified in his Commentarii in Sacram Scripturam and Commentarii in Epistolas Apostolicas, he focuses on the literal meaning of the text; and he is widely regarded for his exegetical skill and judgment.

Whence the Words of Ephesians 5:14? Part 5

And so remains, as to which Prophetic text properly deserves to be said to be cited by the Apostle, that third one that the DUTCH INTERPRETERS in their Notis commend, namely, Isaiah 60:1, to which verses 2 and 3 deserve to be added:ק֥וּמִי א֖וֹרִי כִּ֣י בָ֣א אוֹרֵ֑ךְ וּכְב֥וֹד יְהוָ֖ה עָלַ֥יִךְ זָרָֽח׃ כִּֽי־הִנֵּ֤ה הַחֹ֙שֶׁךְ֙ יְכַסֶּה־אֶ֔רֶץ וַעֲרָפֶ֖ל לְאֻמִּ֑ים וְעָלַ֙יִךְ֙ יִזְרַ֣ח יְהוָ֔ה וּכְבוֹד֖וֹ עָלַ֥יִךְ יֵרָאֶֽה׃  וְהָלְכ֥וּ גוֹיִ֖ם לְאוֹרֵ֑ךְ וּמְלָכִ֖ים לְנֹ֥גַהּ זַרְחֵֽךְ׃, Arise, shine; for thy light is come, and the glory of Jehovah is risen upon thee. For behold! the darkness shall cover the earth, and gross darkness the people:  but Jehovah shall arise upon thee, and his glory shall be seen upon thee.  And the nations shall come to thy light, and kings to the brightness of thy rising.  The speech is directed to the Church considered under the emblem of the City of Jehovah, the antitype of old Zion and Jerusalem, by which names it is accordingly represented everywhere in the Prophets, and here in this context, Isaiah 59:20; 60:14; whence both the Septuagint and Targum Jonathan supplement the sense by the word Jerusalem:  φωτίζου, φωτίζου, Ἱερουσαλὴμ, shine, shine, O Jerusalem;קומי אנהרי ירושלם, arise, shine, O Jerusalem; to which a joyful day of grace is appointed in the place of the nocturnal darkness that had preceded, but now would vanish by degrees.  A weighty exhortation begins the sermon, קוּמִי/arise; which word occurs both where the speech concerning natural sleep, from which one, waking up, arises from the bed, Job 7:4;[1] 24:14;[2] Psalm 119:62;[3] Proverbs 6:9;[4] 31:15;[5] Ecclesiastes 12:4;[6] Jonah 1:6;[7] and where there is discussion concerning natural death, the brother of death, from which one, having been resurrected, arises to take hold of life again, Job 14:12;[8] Psalm 88:10;[9] Isaiah 26:14,[10] 19.[11]  In the place of the Hebrew קוּמִי/arise, in our text Paul has ἔγειραι/arise, which verb, ἐγείρειν, ἐγείρεσθαι, also properly leads us to sleep, from which those that are recalled to wakefulness are said ἐγείρεσθαι, to be awakened, Romans 13:11, ὅτι ὥρα ἡμᾶς ἤδη ἐξ ὕπνου ἐγερθῆναι, that now it is high time to awake out of sleep:  but also quite familiarly the same verb is transferred to death and the calling from the same to life, Matthew 11:5, νεκροὶ ἐγείρονται, the dead are raised up, 1 Corinthians 15:35, πῶς ἐγείρονται οἱ νεκροί, how are the dead raised up?; etc.  Mark expressly translates the Hebrew קוּמִי/cumi/arise by the Greek ἔγειραι/arise, remembering the resurrection of the daughter of Jairus from the dead, Mark 5:41, λέγει αὐτῇ, Ταλιθά, κοῦμι· ὅ ἐστι μεθερμηνευόμενον, Τὸ κοράσιον, σοὶ λέγω, ἔγειραι, He said unto her, Talitha cumi, which is, being interpreted, Damsel, I say unto thee, arise.  Thus the dead are said ἐγείρεσθαι, to be raised, says the Most Illustrious MARCKIUS, Historia Exaltationis Jesu Christi, book I, chapter I, § 5, that is, insofar as they, previously in death being without bodily sense and motion, even in comparison with those sleeping most deeply, recalled to life, receive bodily sense and motion, not only within but without, through all which they irrefutably demonstrate that they live.  But now the Apostle by citing the words of the Prophet also explains the same things, and indicates that the word קוּמִי/arise used metaphorically by Isaiah leads us to this, that the Church, to which the speech is turned, is contemplated by us under this twofold emblem, as that which was dwelling in a state of sleep and at the same time of spiritual death, from which it was obliged to awake and to arise.  And so, in the place of קוּמִי/arise, he not only has the verb ἔγειραι/arise, which best answers to it; but in addition he adds for the sake of explication, ὁ καθεύδων καὶ ἀνάστα ἐκ τῶν νεκρῶν, thou that sleepest, and arise from the dead.


After this Disputation was publicly defended, the Most Illustrious VRIEMOET communicated with me his own ingenious conjecture concerning the double verb of Isaiah, ק֥וּמִי א֖וֹרִי, arise, shine, expressed by Paul in the words, ἔγειρε, ὁ καθεύδων, καὶ ἀνάστα ἐκ τῶν νεκρῶν, awake thou that sleepest, and arise from the dead, but in inverse order:  which, while these little pages are being printed, I do not wish to conceal from the reader, but in the very words of that Most Illustrious Man to submit it to the decision of the reader, so that he might judge whether the one, or indeed the other, which I myself set forth in the Disputation, opinion, as approaching most nearly to the truth, is to be adopted.  Thus that Most Illustrious Man writes in a most courteous letter sent to me:  “It is strange that in the collation of the words of the Apostle with those in Isaiah, that it did not occur to anyone that עורי, wake up, is in the closest relationship with אורי/shine, with a pronunciation conventional especially in the age of the Apostle; by a frequent exchange of the letters א and ע, especially in the Hebræo-Chaldean dialect, concerning which there is something recently in his Ad Dicta Classica, pages 324, 325.  To which by at least some allusion the Apostle would have regard by his own ἔγειραι/arise.  But not even I would dare to believe that perhaps thus this was thus taken so subtly by that holy and θεοπνεύστῳ/inspired Man.  It is not necessary; when that word אורי, to illuminate, to become illuminated, as in 1 Samuel 14:29, אֹ֣רוּ עֵינַ֔י, mine eyes have been enlightened, and in verse 27, if there the reading is to be taken from the Qere, וַתָּאֹרְנָה, and were enlightened, supporting that punctuation in the textual reading,[12] is able rightly to be explained of light striking the eyes of one awakened from sleep.  Which also sufficiently agrees with the pericope in Isaiah, both by the conjunction of אוֹרִי with קוּמִי; and by what is next added, and in verse 2 the mention of the light first rising; and finally by the connection with what precedes:  for with the גּוֹאֵל/Redeemer bringing new light to His Zion, and with them returning obstinacy in Jacob, Isaiah 50:29, and with the expectation thus established out of verse 21 of a perpetual divine covenant; what is more suitable, in this new or continued, Isaiah 60, prophetic sermon, than for the spiritual Zion to be roused (even perhaps from some preceding torpor) to acknowledge these, their new fortunes?  Now, by your leave, I thus refer ἔγειραι/ arise to Isaiah’s אוֹרִי, be illuminated, not to his קוּמִי/ arise; to which, it seems to me, the following ἀνάστα/ arise better corresponds:  so that the Apostle himself might also more perfectly and distinctly express those things distinguished by two words in Isaiah; with only a slight transposition of phrase made.  In this manner, the whole saying of Isaiah 60 would be exactly expressed by the Apostle; neither is it needful to look elsewhere for any pretext.”


This awakening is urged in the Prophet with an eminent promise added: כִּ֣י בָ֣א אוֹרֵ֑ךְ וּכְב֥וֹד יְהוָ֖ה עָלַ֥יִךְ זָרָֽח׃, for thy light is come, and the glory of Jehovah is risen upon thee, which with a small alteration, yet making from the illustration of the same, is repeated in verse 2, וְעָלַ֙יִךְ֙ יִזְרַ֣ח יְהוָ֔ה וּכְבוֹד֖וֹ עָלַ֥יִךְ יֵרָאֶֽה׃, but Jehovah shall arise upon thee, and His glory shall be seen upon thee, in which the new Light that was going to arise upon the Church is explained of Jehovah Himself and His Glory.  A glorious and brilliant Light, which sort belongs to the rising sun, would appear and rise upon the Church through the Coming of Jehovah, the Son of God, the Messiah, in flesh; whereby He might satisfy the desire of those awaiting the kingdom of God, and those panting after the consolation of Israel might be filled with spiritual joy and consolation; who Himself would proclaim and offer Salvation and Redemption, which He would acquire by His own covenanted obedience and satisfaction; and, having been perfected in sufferings, would gloriously ascend the throne of the kingdom of His father David; and, with His royal Spirit plentifully poured out upon the people redeemed by Him and to be gathered out of every nation, would imbue the same with spiritual knowledge, true holiness, and unspeakable joy and consolation, in this manner would rnder the Church more glorious day-by-day, until finally this blessed state is fully consummated in celestial glory.  In every which way the Glory of Jehovah would be manifested, and all His perfections, gloriously shining in the Son, the Messiah, would be made plainly visible; such that the Messiah Himself, who according to His own divine person is ἀπαύγασμα τῆς δόξης, the brightness of the glory,[13] of the Father, might deserve to be called the Glory of Jehovah with the greatest emphasis, by comparison with Isaiah 40:5,וְנִגְלָ֖ה כְּב֣וֹד יְהוָ֑ה וְרָא֤וּ כָל־בָּשָׂר֙ יַחְדָּ֔ו כִּ֛י פִּ֥י יְהוָ֖ה דִּבֵּֽר׃, and the glory of Jehovah shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together: for the mouth of Jehovah hath spoken it, as the true antitype of the Pillar of Cloud and Fire, in which the Angel of the Covenant was formerly appearing as present with the Israelite people, illuminating and covering His people, showing the way through the desert to them, and terrifying their enemies; which symbolic sign of the presence of the Divine among the camps of the Israelites and over the tabernacle is not rarely marked with the name of כְּבוֹד יְהוָה, the glory of the Lord, also:  see Concionem meam on Psalm 90:16, in the volume entitled Gedachtenis, etc., pages 459-466, and Commentarium meum on 2 Peter, chapter I, pages 670 and following.  Thus many ancient Jews explain the text of Isaiah 60 of the Messiah and His appearance, citations of which see in MICHAELIS’ Adnotationibus on Isaiah 60:1:  and, just as the glorious sign of the divine presence in the old Sanctuary among the Jews everywhere goes by the name of שכינה/Shekinah, which not without reason is thought to lead us to the mystery of the Incarnation of the Son of God, by comparison with John 1:14; Colossians 2:9; so also the paraphrase of JONATHAN of verse 2, in the place of וְעָלַ֙יִךְ֙ יִזְרַ֣ח יְהוָ֔ה, but upon thee shall arise Jehovah, has וביך ישרי שכנתא דיי, but upon thee shall dwell the Shekinah/majesty of the Lord.  The Most Illustrious WESSELIUS relates, and signifies that these things do not displease him, with some evidence added, in Dissertationibus Sacris Leidensibus, Dissertation III, § 15, pages 106, 107, “The very most learned Men are of the opinion that this title of the Glory of the Lord elsewhere in the Scriptures is frequently bestowed upon the Lord and King of Glory, that is, the Son of God, the Messiah, evidently so called, both on account of the Cloud of Glory, a certain Symbol of His presence among the People; and because He was to be revealed through the Gospel, the Spirit, and judgments, with much demonstration of the Divine Truth, Holiness, Righteousness, Grace, and Power, just like that brightness, which was appearing out of the thick cloud, and sometimes was suddently erupting from it, Leviticus 9:23, 24.  Unto this sense passages are cited, Isaiah 40:5, and shall be revealed כְּב֣וֹד יְהוָ֑ה, the Glory of the Lord; Isaiah 58:8, כְּב֥וֹד יְהוָ֖ה, the Glory of the Lord, shall be thy rereward; Isaiah 60:1, 2, Arise, shine or be illuminated, for thy light is come, וּכְב֥וֹד יְהוָ֖ה, and the Glory of the Lord, is risen upon thee: For, behold! the darkness shall cover the earth, and gross darkness the nations, and upon thee shall arise Jehovah, וּכְבוֹדוֹ, and His Glory, shall be seen upon thee, by comparison with Ephesians 5:14, Wherefore He saith, that is, the Spirit through Isaiah in the passage cited, Be awakened thou that sleepest, and arise from the dead, καὶ ἐπιφαύσει σοι ὁ Χριστός, and Christ shall give thee light.”  Inasmuch as these things are so, Paul strictly and clearly, and at the same time optimally, expressed the the sense of this Prophetic promise through καὶ ἐπιφαύσει σοι ὁ Χριστός, and Christ shall give thee light.  Thus the Apostle contracted into a summary what things are found more copiously in the Prophet; with the utmost faithfulness he thence selected what things were serving his purpose, and at the same time briefly expressed the mind of the Prophet, sending the Ephesians back to Isaiah himself, so that from the entire context of the Prophet they might learn additional things that were able to conduce to their spiritual edification.  Certainly from the words that occur in the former part of verse 2, for, behold! darkness shall cover the earth, and gross darkness the nations, the Ephesians, having been converted from Gentilism, were able to represent to themselves their natural state, in which hitherto with all the world of the Heathen they had dwelt; but from which divine mercy had just recently freed them through the preaching of the Gospel, conjoined with the heart-changing grace of the Holy Spirit, by the power of the merits of Christ, who was made perfect in sufferings, such that those that ἦσαν ποτε σκότος, were sometimes darkness, now have been made φῶς ἐν Κυρίῳ, light in the Lord, in comparison with Ephesians 5:8.  Hence the Apostle, particularly applying the prophetic admonition of Isaiah to men of this sort, that had now also been made part of spiritual Zion and Jerusalem, was able to explain that קוּמִי/arise with so much grater emphasis, as one making for the awakening from this sleep and death of those that, having been buried and interred, were lying not only in deep sleep but in spiritual death.  But, when it next follows in verse 3, and the nations shall come to thy light, and kings to the brightness of thy rising; these that drew their ancestry from Heathenism were made so much more powerfully certain that they also were certainly going to have a part in the Light and splendor that was going to shine in the Church, and most joyfully illuminate all its members.  That is, the promised rising of the Light would make for the dispelling of the darkness, in which, according to verse 2, all Nations, with the Jews alone excepted, had been enveloped until the Advent of Messiah.  The collation of the third verse also makes it clear that, although in the beginning of the Chapter address was rather made to the Church, which sort in the time of the Coming of the Messiah would be among the Jews before the beginning of the Calling of the Gentiles, the Apostle nevertheless was able to set forth this Prophetic oracle to admonish believers of the Gentiles concerning their duty:  since the promise set forth in verses 1 and 2 is then in verse 3 extended to the Gentiles; which, so that they might become sharers in this promise, ought also to comport themselves in a manner worthy of the calling of God; and when these more than the Jews are described in verse 2 as covered with thick darkness and dwelling in the darkness night, it also especially belonged to these to arise from sleep and death, so that, when the night passed, they might be made sharers in the pleasing Light of the coming day of salvation, and might walk in it as children of the light and of the day.  And, while elsewhere the Bride with shame shows herself as also sleeping sometimes, Song of Songs 5:2, and while the Lord asserts of the Church of Sardis, ὅτι τὸ ὄνομα ἔχει ὅτι ζῇ, καὶ νεκρὸς ἐστὶ, that it has a name that it is living, and is dead, Revelation 3:2, on which passages see the Commentarium of the Most Illustrious MARCKIUS; will one that duly attends to the spiritual state of the Jewish Church at the time of the coming of Messiah into the world, of which in § 10 a few things have already been said, be amazed that the same, however much the true members of the Church enjoy spiritual life that cannot be lost, is aroused so that it might arise, as what was overtaken by sleep and death?  As those sleeping, whatever heart might be awake, in various respects true believers in the Gospel appear to us in the time of Christ’s earthly life:  the spiritual life of those was everywhere so tenuous and weak, so that its vital motions and actions hardly appear, and it appears to be able to be extinguished easily.  But much more was the most exact likeness of the deepest sleep and true death appearing in the far greatest part of them, who in the members of the assembly of the visible church at that time were professing the name, and from whom to the design of a gracious election many thousands thereafter through efficacious vocation were also gathered to the living members of the church.  Who all accordingly, each agreeably to his spiritual condition, were held to arise and to wake up from their sleep and death.

[1] Job 7:4:  “When I lie down, I say, When shall I arise (אָקוּם), and the night be gone? and I am full of tossings to and fro unto the dawning of the day.”

[2] Job 24:14:  “The murderer rising (יָקוּם) with the light killeth the poor and needy, and in the night is as a thief.”

[3] Psalm 119:62:  “At midnight I will rise (אָקוּם) to give thanks unto thee because of thy righteous judgments.”

[4] Proverbs 6:9:  “How long wilt thou sleep, O sluggard? when wilt thou arise (תָּקוּם) out of thy sleep?”

[5] Proverbs 31:15:  “She riseth also (וַתָּקָם) while it is yet night, and giveth meat to her household, and a portion to her maidens.”

[6] Ecclesiastes 12:4:  “And the doors shall be shut in the streets, when the sound of the grinding is low, and he shall rise up (וְיָקוּם) at the voice of the bird, and all the daughters of musick shall be brought low…”

[7] Jonah 1:6:  “So the shipmaster came to him, and said unto him, What meanest thou, O sleeper? Arise (קוּם), call upon thy God, if so be that God will think upon us, that we perish not.”

[8] Job 14:12:  “So man lieth down, and riseth not (וְלֹא־יָקוּם):  till the heavens be no more, they shall not awake, nor be raised out of their sleep.”

[9] Psalm 88:10:  “Wilt thou shew wonders to the dead? shall the dead arise (יָקוּמוּ) and praise thee?  Selah.”

[10] Isaiah 26:14a:  “They are dead, they shall not live; they are deceased, they shall not rise (בַּל־יָקֻמוּ)…”

[11] Isaiah 26:19:  “Thy dead men shall live, together with my dead body shall they arise (יְקוּמוּן).  Awake and sing, ye that dwell in dust:  for thy dew is as the dew of herbs, and the earth shall cast out the dead.”

[12] 1 Samuel 14:27:  “But Jonathan heard not when his father charged the people with the oath:  wherefore he put forth the end of the rod that was in his hand, and dipped it in an honeycomb, and put his hand to his mouth; and his eyes were enlightened (Ketib, וַתָּרֹאנָה; Qere, וַתָּאֹרְנָה).”  The pointing of the Ketib is more consistent with the consonants of the Qere.

[13] Hebrews 1:3.

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