Chapter II:31: Answering the Objections of Enthusiasts, Part 2

  1. Their Objections concern the Enthusiastical Spirit, whom they maintain,

α. To have been Promised both elsewhere and especially in Joel 2:28, 29.

I Respond: a.  With phrases alike selected out of the Old Economy according to the manner of the Prophets, that the abundance of light and knowledge is designed, that would obtain under the New Testament through the instruction of the Spirit, but from the Scripture, according to Isaiah 59:21; and that would be such that the faithful flocks of the New Testament, compared with the faithful flocks of the Old Testament, would excel them by so great an interval as formerly had been between the Prophets and other men of the common people. b.  But, a certain excellent and extraordinary proof of this matter, and earnest, as it were, God willed to be on record in that effusion of the Spirit, with which the Apostles were magnified, and of which He made certain others sharers in those first times, and in which the words of the prophecy were more literally fulfilled:  so that from those the faithful might gather what they might be warranted to expect for themselves from the divine resources. c.  For it is evident that those extraordinary gifts of the Spirit do not pertain to all unto whom the prophecy of Joel had regard; inasmuch as Peter extends this promise unto all truly penitent under the New Testament, Acts 2:38, 39, just as Joel had made mention of all flesh, whom nevertheless the event teaches not at all to have been made partakers of that extraordinary prophetic gift.  While the promises of Isaiah 54:13 and Jeremiah 31:34 ought not to be understood absolutely, but rather comparatively, concerning the greater grace of the Spirit and more extensive effusion of knowledge under the New Testament, or concerning the more abundant, future, subjective effusion of the Holy Spirit under the New Testament than under the Old; and concerning the greater and clearer, shining, objective revelation under the New Testament through the execution and fulfillment of the things signified and predicted under the Old:  which things do not at all exclude instruction also mediated out the Scriptures, which are revealed for this purpose, as a perfect rule of faith.  On Isaiah 54:13, consult TRIGLAND’S Antapologiam, chapter XXXIII, pages 447, 448, in comparison with the Apologia Remonstrantium, chapter XVII, page 185b; and WESSELIUS’ Fasciculum Dissertationum, Sermon on this passage, pages 647-653.  The same WESSELIUS, Fasciculo Dissertationum, in the Dissertation on 2 Corinthians 3:6, § VIII, concerning the text of Jeremiah 31:34, writes:  “They shall teach no more every man his friend, and every man his brother, that is, an Israelite, but also the Nations, dwelling through the entire world, unto its bounds, with the dividing wall now removed.”

Chapter II:31: Answering the Objections of Enthusiasts, Part 1

The Objections of the Enthusiasts:

1.  They attack the Scripture, which they call a double-dealing, dead letter, appealing to Paul in 2 Corinthians 3:6.

I respond with our AUTHOR, α. All the blame of the Obscurity of the Scriptures, through which they may not be able to understand those sufficiently for salvation, is to be sought in the blindness and twistedness of men, while otherwise they are in themselves sufficiently perspicuous, as was seen in § 25, 26.  β. Similarly, that the Scripture is dead and ineffectual, that is occasioned by the vice of corrupt man; but otherwise it is living and efficacious in itself, 1 Peter 1:23; Jeremiah 23:29.  γ. Paul does not speak properly of the Letter, that it is dead, but that it kills, which is not an act of a dead thing, but of a living, τὸ γὰρ γράμμα ἀποκτείνει, for the letter killeth, of which Letter he says that he is not a minister.  In which manner the Apostles does not reject and despise every Word written in the books of God:  for he himself, who denies himself to be a minister of the letter, left so many volumes written for the Church, and greatly commends the Scripture of the Old Testament also, 2 Timothy 3:15-17.  But by the Letter he understands the Legal ministry of Moses predominating under the Old Testament, to which he opposes the more gracious ministry of the Gospel, called the ministry of the Spirit, either on account of the Spirit promised there, who in the Gospel revealed by Himself not only teaches the spiritual scope/ end and use of the Law, but also confers grace for the fulfillment of the Law in Evangelical perfection:  or because by the Evangelical ministry of the New Testament he understands the Spirit of the Law, as opposed to the external Letter of the same, which is the deeper and more hidden Scope/End of the Law according to the intention of God, namely, that Christ is more clearly delivered and more abundantly inculcated unto righteousness to each believer.  Now, that Letter of the Law kills, since it only prescribes and threatens dearth to transgressors; while at the same time fallen man is unable to fulfill the Law.  Thus by the Law there is no justification, but rather the knowledge of sin, Romans 3:20. The Law worketh wrath, Romans 4:15; Galatians 3:10:  by the Law sin also abounds, Romans 5:20; 7:9, 11.  The Letter of the Ceremonial Law also kills those that, cleaving to the Letter of those precepts, imagine that this worship is of itself acceptable to God, and seek righteousness by the observation of it, but do not penetrate to the spiritual and Evangelical marrow of it by the help of the Spirit of illumination and faith.  δ. And so we do not deny the necessary instruction of the Spirit as teacher for true understanding and the right use of the written Word, but in such a way that He teaches from the Scriptures and through them:  but not that He might deliver new Revelations beyond the Scriptures and contrary to them.  Consult the things to be said concerning the sense of this passage below, Chapter V, § 26, on 2 Corinthians 3:17, 18; and WESSELIUS’ Dissertationem on this passage, which is ninth in his Fasciculo Dissertationum.

Chapter II:30: Personal and Public Disposition toward Enthusiasm

To the Spirit of the Enthusiasts MARNIXIUS[1] maintained that our Spirit is to be opposed, most certainly attesting and declaring that all their Enthusiasms are false, vain, and wicked.  Since what they say is ridiculous, that our Spirit is not the true Spirit; especially when they take away the genuine evidence and proof of the Spirit, which is Sacred Scripture; we are no more bound by their bare assertion than they are by ours, or either by others’:  see HOORNBEECK’S Summam Controversiarum, book VI, pages 405-407.

Let us hold with certainty that we are to beware of those that, boasting Enthusiasms, make little of the Scripture, contrary to Isaiah 66:2; Psalm 119:72, 127; and let us not ever separate the Spirit of God from the Word attested in the Scriptures, being mindful of the promise, Isaiah 59:21.

The Edict of the Senate of Zurich against modern Fanatics and Neo-prophets, April 18, 1717, promulgated from the pulpits in city and country, is exhibited in the German tongue in Bibliotheca Bremensis, Classis I, fascicule III, chapter VIII, pages 351-358.  Read the argument of the book, reviewed in Bibliotheca Bremensis, Classis I, fascicule VI, chapter V, pages 870-879, which was published in German in Zurich, 1717, under the title, Hora Tentationis super Ecclesia Euangelica per novos sponte sua currents Prophetas, etc., and the author of which is given as JOHANN JAKOB HOTTINGER, Theologian of Zurich.[2]  Concerning the Inspired or Neo-prophets of the Cevennes,[3] see also BUDDEUS’ Isagogen ad Theologiam universam, book II, chapter VII, § 10, tome 2, pages 1377b, 1378a.

[1] Philips of Marnix (1540-1598), Lord of Saint-Aldegonde, was a Dutch statesman and proponent of the Reformation.  He is responsible for one of the earliest translations of the Bible into Dutch.

[2] Johann Jakob Hottinger (1652-1735), son of Johann Heinrich Hottinger, served as Professor of Theology at Zurich (1698-1735).  He wrote voluminously, engaging opponents of Reformed orthodoxy, including Roman Catholic theologians and Enthusiasts.

[3] The Camisards, French Protestants in southern France (the Cevennes region, and surrounding areas), engaged in an armed resistance against persecution after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes.  As their teachers and leaders were captured, killed, or exiled, the movement fell under the influence of more mystically oriented leadership and “prophets”.

Chapter II:30: Arguments against Enthusiastical Additions to the Revelation of Scripture, Part 4

4.  The testimony of the Spirit in the cases of those that have urged it is sufficiently convicted of falsehood, from its conflict with the Scriptures, both mutual and also proper, and from impieties and sins. WITSIUS, in his Miscellaneorum sacrorum, tome 1, book I, chapter XXIV, § 20, asks, “Finally, what is found to have appeared in any sort of writing, by anyone that called himself a Prophet, or was esteemed a Prophet by others, that might deserve to be added to our books, undoubtedly divine, and might contain truths momentous, heavenly, divine, and profitable for faith, piety, and salvation, truths that are not already there? Whatever was ever or anywhere discovered to me by those that hold in contempt the doctrine of the Scriptures as the rude elements of wisdom, that consists either in blasphemous comments, or in superstitious and fabulous trifles, or in pompous grandiloquence of speech, in which there is not even a particle of good sense.”  Who then, in § 29-35, also shows at greater length just how greatly the revelations that Thomas Muntzer and Nicolaus Drabicius[1] boasted had been given to them tend to agitate all things in Church and republic, and were at the same time convicted of falsehood by the event:  which makes for the confirmation,

5. Of our AUTHOR’S argument, concerning all the upset of Order and manifest confusion in the Church, to be introduced necessarily by this principle, and always introduced.

[1] Nicholas Drabicius (1588-1671), son of a burgomaster in Moravia, was admitted to the ministry, but was forced into exile by the severe edicts of the Emperor against Protestantism.  He was more than fifty years old when the visions began.  He prophesied that the house of Austria would be crushed, that Prince Ragotski would command one of the victorious armies, and that Drabicius himself and his brethren would be restored to their native land.  However, Ragotski died, without accomplishing the defeat of the house of Austria; indeed, the house of Austria waxed in strength, rivaling its former power.  Comenius published Drabicius’ prophecies in Lux in Tenebris.

Chapter II:30: Arguments against Enthusiastical Additions to the Revelation of Scripture, Part 3

2.  We posit the Uncertainty of such extraordinary Revelations, on account of the deceitfulness of the Heart, Jeremiah 17:9, עָקֹ֥ב הַלֵּ֛ב מִכֹּ֖ל, fraudulent, deceitful is the heart, attacking, as it were, men very insidiously from behind, and oppressing with the greatest craft and deceit, above all other things, וְאָנֻ֣שׁ ה֑וּא, and that is mortally diseased, so that it is insidiously cunning and crafty unto its very own ruin: מִ֖י יֵדָעֶֽנּוּ׃, who shall know, prevail to know, it? see VRIEMOET’S Adnotationes ad Dicta classica Veteris Testamenti, chapter XIV, tome 3, pages 76-78: no less on account of the cunning of the Devil, 2 Corinthians 11:14, for which reason also all Spirits are to be proven by Scripture, John 4:1, on which text see VOETIUS’ Disputationem sextam de Signis, quæ est de Probationibus Spirituum, Disputationum selectarum theologicarum, part II, pages 1100-1133.

3.  We add the various Prophecies concerning False Prophets arising under the New Testament, under sheep’s clothing, Matthew 7:15; 24:11, 24; 1 John 4:1: while similar promises concerning the rousing true Prophets, properly so called, under the New Testament, in its progress.

Chapter II:30: Arguments against Enthusiastical Additions to the Revelation of Scripture, Part 2

Nevertheless, by way of Exception our AUTHOR subjoins: although we are unwilling to altogether deny all Extraordinary Revelation concerning private events for private uses.  For extraordinary Revelation concerning matters of faith, which is to be received in the place of Sacred Scripture, or for a supplement of the deficient written Word, and serves as a norm for the entire Church, differs greatly from Revelation concerning private events for private uses.  Concerning Revelations of the former sort we now principally argue:  concerning those others it will be helpful to hear now the judgment of HERMAN WITSIUS, that most prudent and pious Theologian, who, in his Miscellaneorum sacrorum, tome 1, book I, chapter XXIV, § 38, thus pronounces:  “Nevertheless, I do not therefore wish to deny that it frequently happens that men pious, and devoted to divine service in a singular manner, and admitted unto closer and more intimate relationship with the Divine, by Him are taught of things future and mysterious; the knowledge of which is very useful for the excitement of piety, for the consolation of the soul, for strengthening in faith and hope, and for the exercise of prudence.  The history of every age is full of examples of these.  I do not see any reason why belief should be withheld from men honest, pious, and altogether worthy of confidence, relating such things concerning themselves from time to time, for the glory of God.  In such a way that not all things that are related are to be received blindly.  For, it can easily happen in such things, that either men trifle with phantasms, or the heavy and strange affections proceed from an affection of the brain and humors, or finally fictions are offered in the place of facts….  If, nevertheless, any revelations befall some, those are more for their private information, than that they might be for a norm of faith or action for others, much less for the Church.”  Consult the history of those things, which happened surrounding the inquiry of JOHANN HEINRICH HOTTINGER concerning extraordinary Revelations, and his abdication from office of Professor at the Academy of Marburg,[1] in Bibliotheca Bremensis, Classis I, fascicule II, pages 152-159; and what things the illustrious HOFSTEDE[2] has in Byzonderheden der Heilige Schrift on 2 Corinthians 12:2, § 21-23, volume 2, pages 291-324; and also de Nederlandse Bibliotheek, volume 2, n. 7, Mengelst, pages 202-205.  But these things in passing.

[1] Johann Heinrich Hottinger III (1681-1750) was a Swiss Theologian and Orientalist.  He served as Professor of Antiquities (1704-1710) and of Theology (1710-1717) at Marburg, and later as Professor of Theology at Heidelberg (1723-1750).  Hottinger was forced to resign his professorship at Marburg because of his belief in the possibility of some ongoing special revelation in matters treated darkly by Scripture.

[2] Petrus Hofstede (1716-1803) was a Dutch Reformed Theologian and Pastor, serving in Rotterdam.

Chapter II:30: Arguments against Enthusiastical Additions to the Revelation of Scripture, Part 1

All the errors hitherto enumerated have at least this in common among them, that, with the Sacred Scriptures contemplated in the most vile manner, to them either they join, or they substitute, the internal Word and Private Revelations of the Spirit, according to which action is to be taken and belief is to be formed. The πρῶτα ψεύδη, original error, of those are distorted passages of Scripture, which shall be set forth in § 31.  The Scope/ Goal is to defend their shameful doctrines.  Against the Enthusiasts consult LEYDEKKER’S Veritatem Euangelicam triumphantem, tome I, book I, chapter IV; and especially SPANHEIM the Elder’s Disputationes Anti-Anabaptisticas, Disputationes theologicas, part II, Disputations XVI-XX.

For the refutation of these, besides those things that were said above concerning the Perfection of Scripture, with our AUTHOR we posit;

1. The prohibition of all addition to the Scripture, even under such a pretext, Galatians 1:8, 9, ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐὰν ἡμεῖς ἢ ἄγγελος ἐξ οὐρανοῦ εὐαγγελίζηται ὑμῖν παρ᾽ ὃ, etc., but though we or an angel from heaven preach to you any other gospel than, etc., which passage we just now vindicated in § 27 against the Papists; likewise, 2 Thessalonian 2:1, 2, —μήτε διὰ πνεύματος, etc., neither by spirit, etc.  And so the Apostle esteemed new revelations unnecessary to manifest to us now anew any doctrine not contained in Sacred Scripture.  As the Perfection of Scripture does not allow this; neither does the Perspecuity of the same in relating saving truths, so that we do not need new revelation for the explication of the written Word.  Whence, concerning the formula of Faith dictated by John in a nocturnal vision to Gregory Thaumaturgus;[1] concerning certain Revelations of Christina Paniatovia, among which in Revelation XIX there is a marvelous adumbration of the Holy Trinity; and also concerning the Revelations of Christopher Kotterus, among which is the Angelic Sermon concerning the excellent Triple Title of Christ, namely, that He is called the Man of Wisdom, Lion of the tribe of Judah, and the One standing in the midst of the Seven Churchs;[2] a judgment is able to be made:  in all which you will discover nothing that rises above human ability, and that without extraordinary revelation is not esteemed equally, if not better, from others:  see WITSIUS’ Miscellaneorum sacrorum, tome 1, book I, chapter XXIV, § 19-21, 8, 9, 16, 17, 22-25.

[1] Gregory Thaumaturgus, or the Wonder-worker (c. 213-c. 270) was a disciple of Origin, and later Bishop of Cæsarea.  His pastoral labors did much to advance the Christian faith in Asia Minor.  It is said of him that he wrought miracles, and received revelatory visits from Mary and the Apostle John, who is said to have delivered to him a Creed.

[2] John Amos Comenius (1592-1670) was a Moravian educator and author.  Comenius was a mystic, and in his Lux in tenebris he published the prophecies and visions of Krystyna Poniatowska (a Moravian mystic, who began prophesying in 1627) and Christopher Kotterus (of Silesia, who began prophesying in 1616).

Chapter II:30: History of Enthusiasm, Part 8

The Quakers, who on account of George Fox, the author of their sect, had begun to be known in Britain from the year 1649, hold:  “The Holy Spirit always has manifested, and still manifests, Himself in divine and immediate revelations, which ought not to be weighed by Scripture and reason.  The Scriptures are not the primary rule of faith and manners, but the internal command of the Spirit:”  LAMPE’S Historia Ecclesiastica, book II, chapter XIV, § 43.  The history of these Quakers, and the grievous vexations, to which they were liable both in Britain, and in Pennsylvania, through so long a space of time, yet clinging pertinaciously to their views, GERARD CROESE’S[1] relates in three books.  In order to understand the history and doctrine of the Quakers, it would not at all be displeasing to add WEISMANN’S Historiam Ecclesiasticam, Century XVII, § XIX, part 2, pages 567-598; likewise BUDDEUS’ Isagogen ad Theologiam universam, book II, chapter VII, § 10, tome 2, pages 1376-1377.  Consult also HARTNACK’S Continuationem Historiæ Ecclesiasticæ Micrælii, part 2, article VII, pages 1498-1561, in which also he relates as the doctrines of the Quakers, and proves out of their own writings:  1.  Not only formerly, but even to the present day are given Revelations of the Holy Spirit, immediate and internal, which not only subjectively illuminate the minds of men, but also objectively set forth Theological truths to the mind.  2.  By benefit of these the Gentile Philosophers also in their own mind not only perceived the weakness of the faculty of cognition; but were also helped by this light of Revelations, so that they might in turn set up their lives according to the dictates of right reason and be saved.  3.  The reading of Sacred Scripture begets faith only as applied to fables or parrots:  the internal Word of the Spirit alone renders that firm.  4.  Therefore, not Sacred Scripture, which requires the testimony of the Holy Spirit to furnish divine faith in it; but that internal Word of the Holy Spirit is the first and primary principium of faith, and so Sacred Scriputre is secondary at least.  5.  Not the Sacred Scripture, which only teaches general things:  but the internal Word of the Spirit is the norm as to what is to be thought concerning this or that question, and is the rule as to what is to be done in this or that case.  6.  The Sacred Scripture does not at all pertain to all the faithful, but it is altogether ambiguous in matters of faith; however, the internal Word of the Holy Spirit is common to all, and it frees us from all difficulties.  7.  Therefore, for the Interpretation of that, neither the inspection of the original text, nor the consideration of the connection of the parts, and hence neither the study of Languages and arts, accomplishes anything; but those things rather obscure its true sense and complicates things evident.  But the safest method of interpretation is the internal light and dictate of the Holy Spirit, who abundantly furnishes all these.  With respect to these more recent Enthusiasts WALCH’S Miscellanea Sacra, book I, Exercitation VI, § 12, pages 157-159 is also able to be considered.  Concerning Enthusiasm and Fanaticism, and the difference between them, read BUDDEUS’ general discussion, Theologiæ Moralis, part I, chapter I, section V, § 17-23, pages 176-186.

[1] Gerard Croese (1642-1710) was a Dutch pastor and theologian.  He wrote Historiam Quakerianam.

Chapter II:30: History of Enthusiasm, Part 7

The David-Jorists, followers of David Joris of Delft,[1] who already by the year 1527 spread (but with greater secrecy) wicked and impious doctrines, even concerning himself as the Anointed and Christ of God; those were to be gathered into his Librum Mirabilium:  see SPANHEIM’S Elenchum Controversiarum, opera, tome 3, column 775; DANIEL GERDES’ Historiam Reformationis, Section II, chapter I, § 40, tome 3, pages 116-125; WEISMANN’S Historiam Ecclesiasticam, Century XVII, part 2, page 600; HARTNACK’S[2] Continuationem Historiæ Ecclesiasticæ Micrælii, part 2, pages 1359-1383; BUDDEUS’ Isagogen ad Theologiam universam, book II, chapter VII, § 10, tome 2, pages 1371b, 1372a.

The Paracelsists, so called after Theophrastus Paracelsus, from the region of Zurich, the great restorer of Chemistry,[3] who in the Sixteenth Century spread from the mysteries of Nature Enthusiastical dreams, concerning the state of Adam, concerning the Origin of Christ, concerning the Resurrection of the dead, and others, in Switzerland and neighboring Alsace, in which he died:  see SPANHEIM’S Elenchum Controversiarum, opera, tome 3, column 775; BUDDEUS’ Isagogen ad Theologiam universam, book II, chapter VII, § 10, tome 2, pages 1364b-1366a.

The Weigelians, having their name from Valentin Weigel, from Zschopau, Lutheran Pastor in Meissen, who in the year 1612 became famous for fanatical books:  the literal sense of the Word he called useless, was seeking and commending the allegorical, and believed that it was to be learned by inspiration of the Holy Spirit, with the schools and academies repudiated:  see HOORNBEECK’S worthy tract de Paradoxis et Heterodoxies Weigelianis; HARTNACK’S Continuationem Historiæ Ecclesiasticæ Micrælii, part 2, pages 1384-1414; BUDDEUS’ Isagogen ad Theologiam universam, book II, chapter VII, § 10, tome 2, pages 1366-1368.

[1] David Joris (c. 1501-1556) was a Dutch Anabaptist mystic and leader.  Although he spent the last decade of his life in the Reformed Church (under the assumed name, Johann van Brugge), he continued to circulate his peculiar doctrine in writing.

[2] Daniel Hartnack (1642-1708) was a German Lutheran theologian and schoolmaster.

[3] Paracelsus (1493-1541) was a Swiss-German philosopher, naturalist, physician, and astrologer.  His method was revolutionary, making use of natural observations, rather than ancient texts, in the treatment of disease.

Chapter II:30: History of Enthusiasm, Part 6

Concerning all these see our AUTHOR speaking in Oratione III after Exercitationes Miscellaneas, pages 450-453, while he makes mention of the Enthusiasts of the more recent age, pages 443-448.  Such are:

The Schwenckfelders, who have their name from Caspar Schwenckfeld von Ossig,[1] a noble Silesian,[2] who, disapproving of something in all sects of Christians, joined himself to none:  but he began to spread Enthusiastical errors about the year 1526.  Namely, he taught, 1.  an Enthusiastical Sabbath, in which men, with all thoughts in their souls renounced and cast out, rest in studied and persevering leisure, so that they might receive heavenly inspiration:  which then to them is σαββατίζειν, to keep Sabbath, spiritually in the soul, in which the mind, withdrawn inwardly upon itself and emptied, from that sleep might dream and belch forth all, and even divine, truth.  2.  That God does not make use of the ministry of the Word as a means unto the conversion of man:  for God does not effect our salvation through external means.  As if something were detracted from the efficacious operation of the Holy Spirit and divine grace:  see HOORNBEECK’S de Paradoxis et Heterodoxies Weigelianis,[3] pages 75-80; WEISMANN’S[4] Historiam Ecclesiasticam Novi Testamenti, Century XVI, part I, page 1563; BUDDEUS’ Isagogen ad Theologiam universam, book II, chapter VII, § 10, tome 2, page 1364.

Many Anabaptists:  see SPANHEIM’S Elenchum Controversiarum, opera, tome 3, columns 776, 778. Thomas Muntzer[5] was wont to say:  What is the Bible, Bubble, Babel? VOGET’S[6] de Theologia Pseudo-mystica, § 11, page 11.  But rightly does our AUTHOR say many Anabaptists, since the Northern Anabaptists in SPANHEIM’S Elenchum Controversiarum, opera, tome 3, columns 776, 778, refuse to come into the society of Enthusiastical error; as even HERMAN SCHIJN, in his Historia Mennonitarum, chapter XI, page 296 and following, contends, that the Mennonites always and more than the men of others sects abstained from Enthusiasm and immoderate allegories.

[1] Caspar Schwenckfeld von Ossig lived from 1489 to 1561.

[2] Silesia was a region in south-western Poland.

[3] Valentin Weigel (1533-1588) was a German theologian and mystic.  He served as a Lutheran pastor at Zschopau, and wrote voluminously.  He kept his more radical ideas to himself, and lived peacefully.  Contrary to the dogmatic tendency of the age, Weigel believed that internal illumination is superior to all external means of spiritual knowledge.

[4] Christian Eberhard Weismann (1677-1747) was Professor of Theology at the University of Tubingen.

[5] Thomas Muntzer (1589-1525) was a German Reformer.  Ultimately he opposed not only the Roman Catholic Church, but also the Magisterial Reformation of Luther.  After being involved in leadership of a peasants’ uprising, he was captured and executed.

[6] Albertus Voget (1695-1771) was a Dutch Reformed Pastor and Theologian.  He served as Professor of Theology at Groningen (1727-1735), and at Utrecht (1735-1771).