After Etymology and Synonymy follows Homonymy. In which it is to be observed that the term Theology is used of Theology, either False, or True, which we take up to be explained in this order.
Theology is said to be called False, either equivocally or by catachresis, as it errs to a greater or lesser extent; in almost the same manner the Devil also goes by the name of a God, 2 Corinthians 4:4. This False Theology is best able to be described as fourfold, Pseudo-Christian, Mohammadan, contemporary Jewish, and Gentile. Now, the limitations, with which we are circumscribed, will not bear for us to sketch out these False Theologies κατὰ μέρος, severally.
With respect to the Pseudo-Christianity of Heretics: These heresies are either more ancient or recent. Those More Ancient are set forth in Ecclesiastical History by their individual ages: and, as far as the earlier ages are concerned, a Catalogue of Heresies among the Fathers was composed by TERTULLIAN, EPIPHANIUS, THEODORET, PHILASTRIUS, and also AUGUSTINE; whose Liber de Hæresibus, illustrated by the splendid Commentario of the most illustrious DANÆUS, is read among the Opuscula of the latter. Add from More Recent Authors STAPFER’S Appendix concerning the Heresies of the first ages of the Christian Church, Theologicæ polemicæ, tome 5, pages 313-452, who also treats of Pelagianism, but separately, Theologicæ polemicæ, tome 4, chapter XVI, pages 483-524; likewise Naamlyst der ketters volgens de order der Eeuwen in PICTET’S Theologia Christiana, volume 3, pages 217-254.
The more recent Pseudo-Christianity is either of the Papists, or Socinians, or other Heretics, for example, the Enthusiasts, Arminians, etc., concerning whose Errors and opinions ought to be consulted the Controversiarum Elenchi, for example, of Frederick Spanheim the Younger, PICTET’S Syllabus Controversiarum, HOORNBEEK’S Summa Controversiarum; and also Theologiæ Elencticæ, among which that of the Most Illustrious FRANCIS TURRETIN especially deserves to be commended.
In particular, concerning Popery are able to be added CHAMIER’S Panstratia Catholica, 5 tomes, 2 volumes in folio; or FRIEDRICH SPANHEMIUS’ Chamierus contractus, likewise in folio; RIVET’S Collegium Controversiarum inter Orthodoxos
et Pontificios, which is found in tome 2 of his Opera, and also his Catholicus Orthodoxus, which you have in tome 3 of his Opera; AMES’ Bellarminus enervates; CABELJAUW’S Catholyk Memorie-voek; STAPFER’S Theologicæ polemicæ, tome 4, chapter XIV, pages 67-334; and many similar works. HOORNBEEK discusses Popery in his Summa Controversiarum, book IV, pages 210-347, where he advises that there is to be careful observation of: 1. Popery’s rise, first in corrupt rites, then in order, next in worship, Sacraments, government, and finally doctrines; 2. its development from the time of Boniface III in the year 606 and thereafter; 3. its ἀκμὴν/height in the time of Gregory VII, made Pope in the year 1073; 4. its decline, through much opposition, especially of the Waldenses, whom many have followed in Reformation; 5. the desperate state of Popery, in the Tridentine Council of the year 1545, and thereafter. That the doctrine of the Papal Church is a pallium stitched together from the tattered rags of Old heresies, our AUTHOR teaches in Oratione II, after Exercitationes Miscellaneæ. Concerning Popery, or concerning the Principles of the Roman Church, see also the discussion of LEYDEKKER in his Veritas Euangelica triumphans, tome I, book I, chapter XI.
The heresy of the Socinians began in the middle of the Sixteenth Century. It has its name from the two principal authors of the sect, 1. Lælius Socinus of Siena, who died in Zurich in the year 1562 at the age of thirty-seven; 2. Faustus Socinus, who was born in the year 1539, in Siena of Italy; after he was made the heir of the Library and Manuscripts of his Uncle in 1562, he lived in Italy, passing his time in the hall of the Duke of Florence; thence he went to Basel in the year 1574, afterwards called out unto Transylvania in the year 1577; finally he withdrew into Poland in the year 1579, where he live both at Kraków, then at Luslawice, in which district he died in the year 1604 at the age of sixty-five. This he did in all places: the dictates and theology of his Uncle he imbibed and developed to the fullest extent. Beginning from the year 1570 he wrote many books. Socinus obtained many followers, who undertook to disseminate the new doctrines, especially in the regions of Transylvania and Poland, and gradually withdrew into separate assemblies, indeed in Poland beginning from the year 1562: see HOORNBEEK’S Summa Controversiarum, book VII, pages 441-454; and his Apparatum ad Controversias et Disputationes Socinianas: who also, as equal to all the rest together, is to be consulted on the Socinian Controversies in his Socinianismo confutato, which he wrote in 3 volumes quarto. Add the Most Illustrious CLOPPENBURG’S several tractates in tome 2 of his Opera; ARNOLDI’S Refutationem Catecheseos Racovianæ; MARESIUS’ Hydram Socinianismi expugnatam adversus Volkelium de vera Religione, 3 volumes in quarto; STAPFER’S Theologicæ polemicæ, tome 3, chapter XII, which treats of Socinianism and the Anti-trinitarians, pages 350-583; and, lest I should mention a great many, among the Lutherans ABRAHAM CALOVIUS’ Scripta Anti-Sociniana, 3 volumes in folio. Concerning Socinianism see also LEYDEKKER’S Veritas Euangelica triumphans, tome I, book I, chapter IX; and WEISMANN’S Historia Ecclesiastica Novi Testamenti, part 2, Section XVII, § XIX, pages 521-567. Concerning the Agreement of the Errors of the Socinians with the more ancient heresies see MARCKIUS’ Orationem IV, after his Exercitationes Miscellaneæ.
Concerning the Enthusiasts see HOORNBEEK’S Summa Controversiarum, book VI, pages 401 and following; likewise his tractate de Paradoxis et heterodoxies Weigelianis. Against the men of this family see, among others, JOHANNES CROCIUS’ Anti-Weigelium; and, against the Enthusiasts together, STAPFER’S Theologicæ polemicæ, tome 4, chapter XV, pages 335-482, in which he treats generally of the Fanatics, specifically of the hypotheses of the Quakers, Antoinette Bourignon, Pierre Poiret, Valentin Weigel, Jacob Böhme, the Pseudo-mystics, Dippelius; see also GERARD CROESE’S Historiam Quakerianam; WEISMANN’S Historia Ecclesiastica Novi Testamenti, part 2, Section XVII, in which he narrates a History of the Quakers, § XIX, pages 567-598. Concerning the agreement between the ancient and modern Enthusiastical Errors see the discussion of our Most Illustrious AUTHOR in his Oratione III, after his Exercitationes Miscellaneæ.
Concerning Anabaptism HOORNBEEK treated in his Summa Controversiarum, book V, pages 347-400; WEISMANN, in his Historia Ecclesiastica Novi Testamenti, part 1, Section XVI, § LXI, pages 1694-1699, and part 2, Section XVII, § XX, pages 598-620. Against their errors these are to be consulted before all others: CLOPPENBURG’S Gangræna Theologiæ Anabaptisticæ, published in forty-eight disputations; FREDERICK SPANHEIM’S Disputationum theologicarum, part 2, which in thirty-two disputations takes in a number of celebrated Anti-anabaptistical controversies, and in particular in the first Disputation traces the origin, progress, sects, names, and dogmas of the Anabaptists; and also the Reverend DORESLAER and AUSTRO-SYLVIUS tegen de Wederdooperen; likewise STAPFER’S Theologicæ polemicæ, tome 5, chapter XVIII, pages 1-55.
Concerning the Arminians the Most Illustrious HOORNBEEK treats in his Summa Controversiarum, book VIII. Against their errors see the Most Illustrious AMES’ Scripta Anti-Synodalia, and his rescriptionem ad Grevinchovium; the Censuram Confessionis Remonstrantium, written by the Professors of Leiden; the Most Illustrious JACOBUS TRIGLAND the Elder’s Antapologiam, which, as writing on these controversies, is to be preferred before all; the Most Illustrious PIERRE DU MOULIN’S Anatomen Arminianismi; the Most Illustrious ANTONIUS WALÆUS’ Responsionem ad Corvini Censuram in Anatomen Arminianismi Petri Molinæi; the Most Illustrious JAN VAN DEN HONERT’S de Gratia particulari; STAPFER’S Theologicæ polemicæ, tome 4, chapter XVII, pages 525-606; and many more. Concerning Arminianism see also LEYDEKKER’S Veritas Euangelica triumphans, tome I, book I, chapter X. The Arminians by another name are called Remonstrants from a certain writing, which they call Remonstrantie, delivered to the Princes of Holland in the month of July, 1610, concerning which TRIGLAND discusses at greater length in his Kerckelycke Geschiedenissen, volume 4, pages 521-552. LAMPE judges too benignly of the Arminians in his Introductione ad Catechesin Heidelbergensem, question 7, number I, compared with question 14, where he writes that the Reformed, the Lutherans, and before others ἐπιεικεῖς, men suitable, among the Arminians and Anabaptists: all whom he asserts to be united in the foundation of the faith, and hence that all γνήσια/legitimate members of this Church of Protestants are, not only to tolerate each other, but also to extend the right hand of brotherhood to each other after the likeness of the true Philadelphia.
 That is, an improper use of terms.
 Tertullian wrote several works against heresy, including Adversus Gnosticos Scorpiace, Adversus Praxeam, Adversus Marcionem. The Adversus Omnes Hæreses, traditionally ascribed to him, is thought by many to be spurious.
 Panarion (Medicine-Chest against Heresies).
 Hæreticarum fabularum compendium.
 Diversarum Hereseon Liber.
 Lambert Danæus (c. 1530-1596) was a French minister and theologian. He labored as a pastor and Professor of Divinity at Geneva, and then at Leiden.
 John Frederick Stapfer (1708-1775) was a Swiss Reformed divine of the first order. He served as a Pastor in the canton in Berne. His Institutiones theologicæ, polemicæ, universæ, ordine scientifico dispositæ ranks among the best elenctic theologies.
 Pelagius (c. 354-c. 420/440) was an opponent of Augustine; he denied Augustine’s doctrine of total depravity and the freeness and sovereignty of God’s grace.
 Benedict Pictet (1655-1724) was a Swiss Reformed theologian, and cousin of the great Francis Turretin. He served as a pastor in Geneva, and was appointed Professor of Theology in 1686. He is a transitional figure, having been influenced both by Genevan theological orthodoxy and some measure of Enlightenment philosophy. Among other works, he wrote Theologia Christiana and Morale chrétienne.
 Daniel Chamier (1565-1621) was a Huguenot theologian. He studied at the University of Orange and at Geneva under Theodore Beza. After his ordination, he was installed as pastor at Montélimar. In 1607, he established an academy at Montpellier, and served there for a time as professor, concluding his career as Professor of Theology at Montauban (1612).
 Friedrich Spanheim the Elder (1600-1649) studied at Heidelberg and Geneva. He served the academy at Geneva, first as Professor of Philosophy, then as a member of the theological faculty, and finally as rector. In 1642, he was appointed as Professor of Theology at Leiden, and became a prominent defender of Calvinistic orthodoxy against Amyraldianism.
 Andrew Rivet (1573-1651) was a Huguenot minister and divine. He ministered at Sedan and at Thouara; he went on to teach at the University of Leiden (1619-1632) and at the college at Breda. His influence among Protestants extended well beyond France.
 William Ames (1576-1633) was taught by William Perkins and Paul Bayne. Because of his strict Puritan views, he departed from England for Holland. At the Synod of Dort, Ames served as adviser to Johannes Bogerman, the synod’s president. He was appointed as a professor at Franeker (1622). His Medulla Theologiæ was heavily influential throughout the Reformed world.
 Pieter Cabeljauw (c. 1608-1668) was a Reformed theologian.
 Boniface III was elected in 606, but did not take up the office until 607 (and served less than a year). He is significant in the annals of the Papacy in that, due to his relationship with the Byzantine Emperor Phocas, he was able to secure for the Bishop of Rome the title of Universal Bishop.
 Hildebrand of Sovana (c. 1020-1085) was elected Pope in 1073, taking the name Gregory VII. Gregory VII was a reforming pope, condemning simony and confirming celibacy among the clergy. He is most remembered for his conflict with Emperor Henry IV, in which he asserted the prerogatives of the papacy, requiring Henry to recognize his bans and excommunications, and reserving the appointment of bishops for himself. Gregory VII did much to advance the power and pretensions of his office.
 The Waldenses were a medieval, proto-Reformation group, scattered throughout south-eastern France and northern Italy; they were committed to the study of the Scriptures (for the correction of doctrinal error in the Church), and the preaching of God’s Word.
 The Council of Trent was an Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. It met from 1545-1563. It was decidedly a Counter-Reformation council, defining Roman Catholic doctrine as over against that of the Reformation.
 Lelio Sozzini (1525-1562) was an Italian humanist and anti-Trinitarian reformer. His principal significance is in the influence that he had over his nephew, Fausto Sozzini.
 Johann Cloppenburg (1592-1652) was a Dutch Reformed theologian and controversialist. He studied at the University of Leiden, and held various ministerial posts until his appointment as professor at the University of Harderwijk (1641), and then at Franeker. He was a lifelong friend of Voetius, and colleague of Cocceius at Franeker.
 Maresius, or Samuel Desmarets (1599-1673), was a French Huguenot minister and polemist. He held various ministerial posts, and served as Professor of Theology at Sedan (1625-1636), and at Groningen (1643-1673).
 Abraham Calovius (1612-1686) was a champion of Lutheran orthodoxy. He served the University of Wittenberg as Professor of Theology, and later as general superintendent. He opposed Socinians, Roman Catholics, and Calvinists, denying the possibility of the salvation of any of these. His Systema locorum theologicorum stands at the apex of Lutheran scholastic orthodoxy.
 Christian Eberhard Weismann (1677-1747) was Professor of Theology at the University of Tubingen.
 Valentin Weigel (1533-1588) was a German theologian and mystic. He served as a Lutheran pastor at Zschopau, and wrote voluminously. He kept his more radical ideas to himself, and lived peacefully. Contrary to the dogmatic tendency of the age, Weigel believed that internal illumination is superior to all external means of spiritual knowledge.
 Johannes Crocius (1590-1659) was a Reformed theologian. He was appointed as Professor of Theology at Marburg (1618), at Kassel (1629), and then again at Marburg (1653).
 Antoinette Bourignon (1616-1680) was born in French Flanders. She was mystic, believing that she had been specially chose by God to restore true Christianity. Her influence extended through the Dutch Republic unto Holstein and Scotland.
 Pierre Poiret (1646-1719) was a French mystic, and disciple of Antoinette Bourignon, publishing her works (as well as those of other mystics, ancient and modern).
 Jacob Böhme (1575-1624) was a German theologian and mystic. In his formative years, he was influenced by the writings of Weigel and Schwenckfeld. Although Böhme had no formal education, he wrote prolifically, and had an enthusiastic following.
 John Conrad Dippel (1673-1734) was a Hessian eccentric pietistic divine and alchemist.
 Gerard Croese (1642-1710) was a Dutch pastor and theologian.
 That is, the Elder.
 Petrus Jakobus Austro-Sylvius (died 1647) was a Reformed Pastor in North Holland. He was commission by the synod of North Holland to prepare a refutation of the errors of the Mennonites. Progress on the work was slow until Abraham à Doreslaer (died 1655), a learned Dutch Reformed pastor and theologian, was appointed to help (1627). The result is massive 856 pages of careful comparison between the doctrines of the Reformed and of the Mennonites.
 Namely, Johannes Polyander, Andre Rivet, and Antonius Walæus.
 Jacobus Trigland the Elder (1583-1654) was a Dutch Reformed pastor and theologian. He was deputed by the Synod of North Holland to the Synod of Dort; he was a member of the committee appointed to draw up the Canons of Dort. In 1633, he became Professor of Theology at Leiden.
 Pierre du Moulin (1568-1658) was a Huguenot pastor and theologian. He served as Professor of Theology at Sedan (1621-1658).
 Antonius Walæus (1573-1639) was a Dutch Reformed minister and theologian. He studied at Leiden under Franciscus Junius, Lucas Trelcatius, and Franciscus Gomarus. He was appointed as a professor at Middelburg (1609), and in this capacity he attended the Synod of Dort. In 1619, Walæus became a member of the theological faculty at Leiden. He joined Johannes Polyander, Andre Rivet, and Anthony Thysius in the composition of the Synopsis purioris theologicæ.
 Jan van den Honert (1693-1758) was a Dutch Reformed theologian. He served as Professor of Theology at Utrecht (1727-1734), and later at Leiden (1734-1758).