The principal opponents are:
The Ancients following the Gnosimachi, concerning whom JOHN OF DAMASCUS, de Hæresibus, opera, page m. 585, says, “The Gnosimachi are those that are opposed to the inquiry and knowledge of the Christians, to such an extent that they say that vain and unnecessary is the labor of those that seek any Knowledge out of the divine writings. Neither does God require anything from the Christian, except noble and good actions. And so it is better for one to follow their own intention with a simple and untutored heart, say they, than to expend much care in learning doctrines and sentences.”
 It is doubtful that the Gnosimachi were actually a well-defined sect, but they stood in opposition to the Gnostics, that is, they were doctrinally indifferent, and believed that true religion consists of a good life.