Defense of Heinsius’ Position, Part 2

4. It is added that Mark makes use of the aorist tense of the verb σταυρόω, to crucify, καὶ ἐσταύρωσαν αὐτόν, and they crucified Him.  Now, the Aorist in the New Testament is known often to come in the place of the pluperfect.  PASOR[1] observes this, Grammatica Græca sacra Novi Testamenti, book I, chapter XXIII, number 9, page 235.  Thus we read in Mark 16:14, καὶ ὠνείδισε τὴν ἀπιστίαν αὐτῶν καὶ σκληροκαρδίαν, ὅτι τοῖς θεασαμένοις αὐτὸν ἐγηγερμένον οὐκ ἐπίστευσαν, and He reproved their unbelief and hardness of heart, because they did not believe those that had seen[2] Him raised.  John 7:39, οὔπω γὰρ ἦν Πνεῦμα Ἅγιον, ὅτι ὁ Ἰησοῦς οὐδέπω ἐδοξάσθη, for the Holy Spirit was not yet, because Jesus had not yet been glorified.[3]  Hebrews 1:3, δι᾽ ἑαυτοῦ καθαρισμὸν ποιησάμενος τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ἡμῶν, ἐκάθισεν ἐν δεξιᾷ, etc., when He had purged[4] our sins, He sat down, etc.  In the history of our Lord’s Passion the Aorist similarly occurs as to be taken in the pluperfect tense, John 18:14, ἦν δὲ Καϊάφας ὁ συμβουλεύσας, now Caiaphas was he, who had given counsel,[5] τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις, ὅτι συμφέρει ἕνα ἄνθρωπον ἀπολέσθαι ὑπὲρ τοῦ λαοῦ, to the Jews, that it was expedient that one man should die for the people, in comparison with John 11:49, 50.  Likewise, John 18:24, ἀπέστειλεν οὖν αὐτὸν ὁ Ἄννας, now, Annas had sent[6] Him, δεδεμένον πρὸς Καϊάφαν τὸν ἀρχιερέα, bound unto Caiaphas the high priest.  And in verse 26, λέγει εἷς ἐκ τῶν δούλων τοῦ ἀρχιερέως, συγγενὴς ὢν οὗ ἀπέκοψε Πέτρος τὸ ὠτίον, one of the servants of the high priest, being a relative of him whose ear Peter had cut off.[7]  Likewise, Matthew 27:37, καὶ ἐπέθηκαν, and he had set up,[8] ἐπάνω τῆς κεφαλῆς αὐτοῦ τὴν αἰτίαν αὐτοῦ γεγραμμένην, over His head His accusation written, if you compare verses 35, 36.  And also, in Matthew 27:35 and Mark 15:24, the participle of the aorist σταυρώσαντες signifies, after they had crucified.[9]  Also, Mark 15:15, φραγελλώσας, after they had scourged.

[1] Georgius Pasor (1570-1637) was a Reformed theologian and learned philologist; he served as Professor of Theology at Herborn (1607-1626) and Professor of Greek at Franeker (1626-1637).

[2] Θεασαμένοις is aorist in form, but clearly pluperfect in sense.

[3] Ἐδοξάσθη is aorist in form, but pluperfect in sense.

[4] Ποιησάμενος is aorist in form, but clearly pluperfect in sense.

[5] Συμβουλεύσας is aorist in form, but pluperfect in sense.

[6] Ἀπέστειλεν is aorist in form, but pluperfect in sense.

[7] Ἀπέκοψε is aorist in form, but pluperfect in sense.

[8] Ἐπέθηκαν is aorist in form, but pluperfect in sense.

[9] Matthew 27:35:  “And they crucified him (σταυρώσαντες δὲ αὐτόν, or, and after they had crucified him), and parted his garments, casting lots:  that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, They parted my garments among them, and upon my vesture did they cast lots.”  So also Mark 15:24.

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