Whence the Words of Ephesians 5:14? Part 5

And so remains, as to which Prophetic text properly deserves to be said to be cited by the Apostle, that third one that the DUTCH INTERPRETERS in their Notis commend, namely, Isaiah 60:1, to which verses 2 and 3 deserve to be added:ק֥וּמִי א֖וֹרִי כִּ֣י בָ֣א אוֹרֵ֑ךְ וּכְב֥וֹד יְהוָ֖ה עָלַ֥יִךְ זָרָֽח׃ כִּֽי־הִנֵּ֤ה הַחֹ֙שֶׁךְ֙ יְכַסֶּה־אֶ֔רֶץ וַעֲרָפֶ֖ל לְאֻמִּ֑ים וְעָלַ֙יִךְ֙ יִזְרַ֣ח יְהוָ֔ה וּכְבוֹד֖וֹ עָלַ֥יִךְ יֵרָאֶֽה׃  וְהָלְכ֥וּ גוֹיִ֖ם לְאוֹרֵ֑ךְ וּמְלָכִ֖ים לְנֹ֥גַהּ זַרְחֵֽךְ׃, Arise, shine; for thy light is come, and the glory of Jehovah is risen upon thee. For behold! the darkness shall cover the earth, and gross darkness the people:  but Jehovah shall arise upon thee, and his glory shall be seen upon thee.  And the nations shall come to thy light, and kings to the brightness of thy rising.  The speech is directed to the Church considered under the emblem of the City of Jehovah, the antitype of old Zion and Jerusalem, by which names it is accordingly represented everywhere in the Prophets, and here in this context, Isaiah 59:20; 60:14; whence both the Septuagint and Targum Jonathan supplement the sense by the word Jerusalem:  φωτίζου, φωτίζου, Ἱερουσαλὴμ, shine, shine, O Jerusalem;קומי אנהרי ירושלם, arise, shine, O Jerusalem; to which a joyful day of grace is appointed in the place of the nocturnal darkness that had preceded, but now would vanish by degrees.  A weighty exhortation begins the sermon, קוּמִי/arise; which word occurs both where the speech concerning natural sleep, from which one, waking up, arises from the bed, Job 7:4;[1] 24:14;[2] Psalm 119:62;[3] Proverbs 6:9;[4] 31:15;[5] Ecclesiastes 12:4;[6] Jonah 1:6;[7] and where there is discussion concerning natural death, the brother of death, from which one, having been resurrected, arises to take hold of life again, Job 14:12;[8] Psalm 88:10;[9] Isaiah 26:14,[10] 19.[11]  In the place of the Hebrew קוּמִי/arise, in our text Paul has ἔγειραι/arise, which verb, ἐγείρειν, ἐγείρεσθαι, also properly leads us to sleep, from which those that are recalled to wakefulness are said ἐγείρεσθαι, to be awakened, Romans 13:11, ὅτι ὥρα ἡμᾶς ἤδη ἐξ ὕπνου ἐγερθῆναι, that now it is high time to awake out of sleep:  but also quite familiarly the same verb is transferred to death and the calling from the same to life, Matthew 11:5, νεκροὶ ἐγείρονται, the dead are raised up, 1 Corinthians 15:35, πῶς ἐγείρονται οἱ νεκροί, how are the dead raised up?; etc.  Mark expressly translates the Hebrew קוּמִי/cumi/arise by the Greek ἔγειραι/arise, remembering the resurrection of the daughter of Jairus from the dead, Mark 5:41, λέγει αὐτῇ, Ταλιθά, κοῦμι· ὅ ἐστι μεθερμηνευόμενον, Τὸ κοράσιον, σοὶ λέγω, ἔγειραι, He said unto her, Talitha cumi, which is, being interpreted, Damsel, I say unto thee, arise.  Thus the dead are said ἐγείρεσθαι, to be raised, says the Most Illustrious MARCKIUS, Historia Exaltationis Jesu Christi, book I, chapter I, § 5, that is, insofar as they, previously in death being without bodily sense and motion, even in comparison with those sleeping most deeply, recalled to life, receive bodily sense and motion, not only within but without, through all which they irrefutably demonstrate that they live.  But now the Apostle by citing the words of the Prophet also explains the same things, and indicates that the word קוּמִי/arise used metaphorically by Isaiah leads us to this, that the Church, to which the speech is turned, is contemplated by us under this twofold emblem, as that which was dwelling in a state of sleep and at the same time of spiritual death, from which it was obliged to awake and to arise.  And so, in the place of קוּמִי/arise, he not only has the verb ἔγειραι/arise, which best answers to it; but in addition he adds for the sake of explication, ὁ καθεύδων καὶ ἀνάστα ἐκ τῶν νεκρῶν, thou that sleepest, and arise from the dead.


After this Disputation was publicly defended, the Most Illustrious VRIEMOET communicated with me his own ingenious conjecture concerning the double verb of Isaiah, ק֥וּמִי א֖וֹרִי, arise, shine, expressed by Paul in the words, ἔγειρε, ὁ καθεύδων, καὶ ἀνάστα ἐκ τῶν νεκρῶν, awake thou that sleepest, and arise from the dead, but in inverse order:  which, while these little pages are being printed, I do not wish to conceal from the reader, but in the very words of that Most Illustrious Man to submit it to the decision of the reader, so that he might judge whether the one, or indeed the other, which I myself set forth in the Disputation, opinion, as approaching most nearly to the truth, is to be adopted.  Thus that Most Illustrious Man writes in a most courteous letter sent to me:  “It is strange that in the collation of the words of the Apostle with those in Isaiah, that it did not occur to anyone that עורי, wake up, is in the closest relationship with אורי/shine, with a pronunciation conventional especially in the age of the Apostle; by a frequent exchange of the letters א and ע, especially in the Hebræo-Chaldean dialect, concerning which there is something recently in his Ad Dicta Classica, pages 324, 325.  To which by at least some allusion the Apostle would have regard by his own ἔγειραι/arise.  But not even I would dare to believe that perhaps thus this was thus taken so subtly by that holy and θεοπνεύστῳ/inspired Man.  It is not necessary; when that word אורי, to illuminate, to become illuminated, as in 1 Samuel 14:29, אֹ֣רוּ עֵינַ֔י, mine eyes have been enlightened, and in verse 27, if there the reading is to be taken from the Qere, וַתָּאֹרְנָה, and were enlightened, supporting that punctuation in the textual reading,[12] is able rightly to be explained of light striking the eyes of one awakened from sleep.  Which also sufficiently agrees with the pericope in Isaiah, both by the conjunction of אוֹרִי with קוּמִי; and by what is next added, and in verse 2 the mention of the light first rising; and finally by the connection with what precedes:  for with the גּוֹאֵל/Redeemer bringing new light to His Zion, and with them returning obstinacy in Jacob, Isaiah 50:29, and with the expectation thus established out of verse 21 of a perpetual divine covenant; what is more suitable, in this new or continued, Isaiah 60, prophetic sermon, than for the spiritual Zion to be roused (even perhaps from some preceding torpor) to acknowledge these, their new fortunes?  Now, by your leave, I thus refer ἔγειραι/ arise to Isaiah’s אוֹרִי, be illuminated, not to his קוּמִי/ arise; to which, it seems to me, the following ἀνάστα/ arise better corresponds:  so that the Apostle himself might also more perfectly and distinctly express those things distinguished by two words in Isaiah; with only a slight transposition of phrase made.  In this manner, the whole saying of Isaiah 60 would be exactly expressed by the Apostle; neither is it needful to look elsewhere for any pretext.”


This awakening is urged in the Prophet with an eminent promise added: כִּ֣י בָ֣א אוֹרֵ֑ךְ וּכְב֥וֹד יְהוָ֖ה עָלַ֥יִךְ זָרָֽח׃, for thy light is come, and the glory of Jehovah is risen upon thee, which with a small alteration, yet making from the illustration of the same, is repeated in verse 2, וְעָלַ֙יִךְ֙ יִזְרַ֣ח יְהוָ֔ה וּכְבוֹד֖וֹ עָלַ֥יִךְ יֵרָאֶֽה׃, but Jehovah shall arise upon thee, and His glory shall be seen upon thee, in which the new Light that was going to arise upon the Church is explained of Jehovah Himself and His Glory.  A glorious and brilliant Light, which sort belongs to the rising sun, would appear and rise upon the Church through the Coming of Jehovah, the Son of God, the Messiah, in flesh; whereby He might satisfy the desire of those awaiting the kingdom of God, and those panting after the consolation of Israel might be filled with spiritual joy and consolation; who Himself would proclaim and offer Salvation and Redemption, which He would acquire by His own covenanted obedience and satisfaction; and, having been perfected in sufferings, would gloriously ascend the throne of the kingdom of His father David; and, with His royal Spirit plentifully poured out upon the people redeemed by Him and to be gathered out of every nation, would imbue the same with spiritual knowledge, true holiness, and unspeakable joy and consolation, in this manner would rnder the Church more glorious day-by-day, until finally this blessed state is fully consummated in celestial glory.  In every which way the Glory of Jehovah would be manifested, and all His perfections, gloriously shining in the Son, the Messiah, would be made plainly visible; such that the Messiah Himself, who according to His own divine person is ἀπαύγασμα τῆς δόξης, the brightness of the glory,[13] of the Father, might deserve to be called the Glory of Jehovah with the greatest emphasis, by comparison with Isaiah 40:5,וְנִגְלָ֖ה כְּב֣וֹד יְהוָ֑ה וְרָא֤וּ כָל־בָּשָׂר֙ יַחְדָּ֔ו כִּ֛י פִּ֥י יְהוָ֖ה דִּבֵּֽר׃, and the glory of Jehovah shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together: for the mouth of Jehovah hath spoken it, as the true antitype of the Pillar of Cloud and Fire, in which the Angel of the Covenant was formerly appearing as present with the Israelite people, illuminating and covering His people, showing the way through the desert to them, and terrifying their enemies; which symbolic sign of the presence of the Divine among the camps of the Israelites and over the tabernacle is not rarely marked with the name of כְּבוֹד יְהוָה, the glory of the Lord, also:  see Concionem meam on Psalm 90:16, in the volume entitled Gedachtenis, etc., pages 459-466, and Commentarium meum on 2 Peter, chapter I, pages 670 and following.  Thus many ancient Jews explain the text of Isaiah 60 of the Messiah and His appearance, citations of which see in MICHAELIS’ Adnotationibus on Isaiah 60:1:  and, just as the glorious sign of the divine presence in the old Sanctuary among the Jews everywhere goes by the name of שכינה/Shekinah, which not without reason is thought to lead us to the mystery of the Incarnation of the Son of God, by comparison with John 1:14; Colossians 2:9; so also the paraphrase of JONATHAN of verse 2, in the place of וְעָלַ֙יִךְ֙ יִזְרַ֣ח יְהוָ֔ה, but upon thee shall arise Jehovah, has וביך ישרי שכנתא דיי, but upon thee shall dwell the Shekinah/majesty of the Lord.  The Most Illustrious WESSELIUS relates, and signifies that these things do not displease him, with some evidence added, in Dissertationibus Sacris Leidensibus, Dissertation III, § 15, pages 106, 107, “The very most learned Men are of the opinion that this title of the Glory of the Lord elsewhere in the Scriptures is frequently bestowed upon the Lord and King of Glory, that is, the Son of God, the Messiah, evidently so called, both on account of the Cloud of Glory, a certain Symbol of His presence among the People; and because He was to be revealed through the Gospel, the Spirit, and judgments, with much demonstration of the Divine Truth, Holiness, Righteousness, Grace, and Power, just like that brightness, which was appearing out of the thick cloud, and sometimes was suddently erupting from it, Leviticus 9:23, 24.  Unto this sense passages are cited, Isaiah 40:5, and shall be revealed כְּב֣וֹד יְהוָ֑ה, the Glory of the Lord; Isaiah 58:8, כְּב֥וֹד יְהוָ֖ה, the Glory of the Lord, shall be thy rereward; Isaiah 60:1, 2, Arise, shine or be illuminated, for thy light is come, וּכְב֥וֹד יְהוָ֖ה, and the Glory of the Lord, is risen upon thee: For, behold! the darkness shall cover the earth, and gross darkness the nations, and upon thee shall arise Jehovah, וּכְבוֹדוֹ, and His Glory, shall be seen upon thee, by comparison with Ephesians 5:14, Wherefore He saith, that is, the Spirit through Isaiah in the passage cited, Be awakened thou that sleepest, and arise from the dead, καὶ ἐπιφαύσει σοι ὁ Χριστός, and Christ shall give thee light.”  Inasmuch as these things are so, Paul strictly and clearly, and at the same time optimally, expressed the the sense of this Prophetic promise through καὶ ἐπιφαύσει σοι ὁ Χριστός, and Christ shall give thee light.  Thus the Apostle contracted into a summary what things are found more copiously in the Prophet; with the utmost faithfulness he thence selected what things were serving his purpose, and at the same time briefly expressed the mind of the Prophet, sending the Ephesians back to Isaiah himself, so that from the entire context of the Prophet they might learn additional things that were able to conduce to their spiritual edification.  Certainly from the words that occur in the former part of verse 2, for, behold! darkness shall cover the earth, and gross darkness the nations, the Ephesians, having been converted from Gentilism, were able to represent to themselves their natural state, in which hitherto with all the world of the Heathen they had dwelt; but from which divine mercy had just recently freed them through the preaching of the Gospel, conjoined with the heart-changing grace of the Holy Spirit, by the power of the merits of Christ, who was made perfect in sufferings, such that those that ἦσαν ποτε σκότος, were sometimes darkness, now have been made φῶς ἐν Κυρίῳ, light in the Lord, in comparison with Ephesians 5:8.  Hence the Apostle, particularly applying the prophetic admonition of Isaiah to men of this sort, that had now also been made part of spiritual Zion and Jerusalem, was able to explain that קוּמִי/arise with so much grater emphasis, as one making for the awakening from this sleep and death of those that, having been buried and interred, were lying not only in deep sleep but in spiritual death.  But, when it next follows in verse 3, and the nations shall come to thy light, and kings to the brightness of thy rising; these that drew their ancestry from Heathenism were made so much more powerfully certain that they also were certainly going to have a part in the Light and splendor that was going to shine in the Church, and most joyfully illuminate all its members.  That is, the promised rising of the Light would make for the dispelling of the darkness, in which, according to verse 2, all Nations, with the Jews alone excepted, had been enveloped until the Advent of Messiah.  The collation of the third verse also makes it clear that, although in the beginning of the Chapter address was rather made to the Church, which sort in the time of the Coming of the Messiah would be among the Jews before the beginning of the Calling of the Gentiles, the Apostle nevertheless was able to set forth this Prophetic oracle to admonish believers of the Gentiles concerning their duty:  since the promise set forth in verses 1 and 2 is then in verse 3 extended to the Gentiles; which, so that they might become sharers in this promise, ought also to comport themselves in a manner worthy of the calling of God; and when these more than the Jews are described in verse 2 as covered with thick darkness and dwelling in the darkness night, it also especially belonged to these to arise from sleep and death, so that, when the night passed, they might be made sharers in the pleasing Light of the coming day of salvation, and might walk in it as children of the light and of the day.  And, while elsewhere the Bride with shame shows herself as also sleeping sometimes, Song of Songs 5:2, and while the Lord asserts of the Church of Sardis, ὅτι τὸ ὄνομα ἔχει ὅτι ζῇ, καὶ νεκρὸς ἐστὶ, that it has a name that it is living, and is dead, Revelation 3:2, on which passages see the Commentarium of the Most Illustrious MARCKIUS; will one that duly attends to the spiritual state of the Jewish Church at the time of the coming of Messiah into the world, of which in § 10 a few things have already been said, be amazed that the same, however much the true members of the Church enjoy spiritual life that cannot be lost, is aroused so that it might arise, as what was overtaken by sleep and death?  As those sleeping, whatever heart might be awake, in various respects true believers in the Gospel appear to us in the time of Christ’s earthly life:  the spiritual life of those was everywhere so tenuous and weak, so that its vital motions and actions hardly appear, and it appears to be able to be extinguished easily.  But much more was the most exact likeness of the deepest sleep and true death appearing in the far greatest part of them, who in the members of the assembly of the visible church at that time were professing the name, and from whom to the design of a gracious election many thousands thereafter through efficacious vocation were also gathered to the living members of the church.  Who all accordingly, each agreeably to his spiritual condition, were held to arise and to wake up from their sleep and death.

[1] Job 7:4:  “When I lie down, I say, When shall I arise (אָקוּם), and the night be gone? and I am full of tossings to and fro unto the dawning of the day.”

[2] Job 24:14:  “The murderer rising (יָקוּם) with the light killeth the poor and needy, and in the night is as a thief.”

[3] Psalm 119:62:  “At midnight I will rise (אָקוּם) to give thanks unto thee because of thy righteous judgments.”

[4] Proverbs 6:9:  “How long wilt thou sleep, O sluggard? when wilt thou arise (תָּקוּם) out of thy sleep?”

[5] Proverbs 31:15:  “She riseth also (וַתָּקָם) while it is yet night, and giveth meat to her household, and a portion to her maidens.”

[6] Ecclesiastes 12:4:  “And the doors shall be shut in the streets, when the sound of the grinding is low, and he shall rise up (וְיָקוּם) at the voice of the bird, and all the daughters of musick shall be brought low…”

[7] Jonah 1:6:  “So the shipmaster came to him, and said unto him, What meanest thou, O sleeper? Arise (קוּם), call upon thy God, if so be that God will think upon us, that we perish not.”

[8] Job 14:12:  “So man lieth down, and riseth not (וְלֹא־יָקוּם):  till the heavens be no more, they shall not awake, nor be raised out of their sleep.”

[9] Psalm 88:10:  “Wilt thou shew wonders to the dead? shall the dead arise (יָקוּמוּ) and praise thee?  Selah.”

[10] Isaiah 26:14a:  “They are dead, they shall not live; they are deceased, they shall not rise (בַּל־יָקֻמוּ)…”

[11] Isaiah 26:19:  “Thy dead men shall live, together with my dead body shall they arise (יְקוּמוּן).  Awake and sing, ye that dwell in dust:  for thy dew is as the dew of herbs, and the earth shall cast out the dead.”

[12] 1 Samuel 14:27:  “But Jonathan heard not when his father charged the people with the oath:  wherefore he put forth the end of the rod that was in his hand, and dipped it in an honeycomb, and put his hand to his mouth; and his eyes were enlightened (Ketib, וַתָּרֹאנָה; Qere, וַתָּאֹרְנָה).”  The pointing of the Ketib is more consistent with the consonants of the Qere.

[13] Hebrews 1:3.

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