Whence the Words of Ephesians 5:14? Part 6

And since, with the precautions applied, that I advised in § 8 are to be observed time and again in the citation of the Old Testament made by the Writers of the New Testament, all things are plain and clear, if we establish that the words of Paul in Ephesians 5:14 were borrowed from the beginning of chapter of Isaiah 60; it is not at all strange that Interpreters, many and eminent, turned to this opinion, which affirms that the words of the Apostle in our text were fetched either completely or in the greatest part from the pericope of Isaiah just now mentioned.  Thus we heard in § 8 FRANCIS JUNIUS pronouncing in his Parallelis, whom see at greater length in the place cited by us above; and in the same place we saw GLASSIUS agreeing with this.  To these are added from the Papists THOMAS AQUINAS, CAJETAN, and ESTIUS.[1]  From the Lutherans LUCAS OSIANDER, ABRAHAM CALOVIUS, and MICHAEL WALTHER in his Harmonia Biblica on Ephesians 5:14, where he comments in this manner:  “Most with Francis Junius think that a finger is pointed to the passage in Isaiah 60:1….  To me also this is made very close to the truth; for, just as the Prophet there exhorts the Church to acknowledge the light of the Gospel, which has arisen upon it, with a thankful heart, and to walk in it; so also Paul exhorts the Ephesians, after the have been illuminated by Evangelical truth, to reject darkness and spiritual sleep, and to walk in that light.  Now, although the words in the Prophet sound somewhat different than those cited by the Apostle, nevertheless the sense in both places is clearly the same.  For, when the Prophet says, arise, Paul expresses that at greater length, and ἕνεκα, for the sake of, greater δεινότητος/forcefulness thus relates: Awake thou that sleepest, and arise from the dead, understanding the death of sin, which men are born, from which they are roused, when they begin to live piously.  When the Prophet writes, the Glory of Jehovah is risen upon thee, Paul explains it of Christ, concerning whom the Scripture elsewhere testifies in John 1:9 that He is the true Light, illuminating every man that cometh (I would rather read coming, referring back to Light) into this world.”  Additionally, JOHANN CHRISTIAN WOLF on this passage, of which after the weighing of the various opinions of others this is the epicrisis:  “And so I am unwilling to draw back from the force and notion of the phrase διὸ λέγει, wherefore He saith, even in this place, but rather to take part with those that think that the Apostle turned his gaze to Isaiah 60:1.  I acknowledge that not so much the words are related here, as the sense is expressed.  But this is sufficient, since it is evident that both Paul and the other Sacred Writers have thus done.”  Likewise JOHANN GOTTLOB CARPZOV in Critica Sacra Veteris Testamenti, where indeed in part I, chapter III, § 6, to objection X against the uncorrupted integrity of the Hebrew Codex of the Old Testament, an objection fetched from passages cited from the Old Testament, which are read differently in the New Testament, among other things he responds, page 121:  “Finally, in passage that are not clearly found in the Old Testament, and yet are cited in the New, careful attention is to be paid to the formula of citation.  For, such things are cited, not as written, but only as expressed by mouth, for example, Matthew 2:23, ὅπως πληρωθῇ τὸ ῥηθὲν διὰ τῶν προφητῶν, ὅτι Ναζωραῖος κληθήσεται, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophets, He shall be called a Nazarene.  Thus in Ephesians 5:14, διὸ λέγει, wherefore He saith (that is, the Lord, yet not precisely in the writings of the Old Testament, but now through me, or Christ in the days of His flesh), ἔγειρε, ὁ καθεύδων, etc., awake thou that sleepest, etc.”  But in part III, contra Pseudocriticam Whistoni, chapter II, § 4, concerning the fount and seat of the citations from the Old Testament in the New, he observes after other things:  “At the same time, a saying cited κατὰ τὸ ῥητὸν, according to the wording, in the Old Testament is nowhere found, but from that it is cited κατὰ τὸν διάνοιαν, according to the sense, or by consequence also, whence a lacuna or a corruption of the modern codex is not to be argued, but the force of the argument and the divine Logic of the Holy Spirit is to be discerned and elicited; to this regard is paid in Matthew 2:23, He shall be called a Nazarene, which is nowhere found in the Prophets ῥητῶς/verbatim, etc.:  likewise in 1 Timothy 5:18, the laborer is worthy of his reward, which words are deduced from the sense of the law in Leviticus 19:13 and Deuteronomy 24:14 and following:  and in Ephesians 5:14, which words are elicited from the sense of the prophecy in Isaiah 60:1.”  And in part III, contra Pseudocriticam Whistoni, chapter II, § 10, where, as an example of a passaged alleged out of the Old Testament in the New, which nevertheless today is altogether missing in the Old Testament, Ephesians 5:14 is cited by Whiston, CARPZOV answers in a similar manner on page 869:  “Indeed, the entire sense of Isaiah 60:1, 2 is evident, which Paul ahs ingeniously accommodated to his scope/purpose.”  Of Our Men, the Most Illustrious COCCEIUS has:  “Διὸ λέγει, wherefore he saith.  Grotius:  τὸ φῶς, the light, that is, the pious man.  And he thinks that they are not the words of Scripture.  But it is more suitable that they be a confirmation from the words of Scripture, but explicated and accommodated.  Isaiah 60:1, Arise, shine, for thy light is come, and the glory of the Lord is risen upon thee; if we should thus take it simply, the παραίνεσις/exhortation will be the twin of that which the Apostles sets forth here.”  In a time now passed, DANIEL TOSSANUS, a celebrated Theologian of the Palatinate, had also judged that the words of Paul in this place were repeated out of Isaiah 60, in his Prælectionibus in Epistlam ad Ephesios:  “But even if (says he) Jerome thinks that that saying in verse 14, Arise thou that sleepest, is nowhere found in Scripture; yet there is no doubt that he alluded to at least some passage of Scripture, and has interpreted paraphrastically, as it were:  and we happily refer this to that passage in Isaiah 60:1, in which, with the hope of the Savior and Protector of the Church depicted, he exhorts the Church to arise, that is, to raise itself, and to appear in order to acknowledge and enjoy the benefits of Christ when His light will have come, that is, the time of grace and renewal through Christ.”  But JOHN PISCATOR of Herborn in his Analysi of Ephesians 5 also wrote:  “In verse 14 he confirms the instituted exhortation by prophetic testimony; which appears to have been taken, although not verbatim, from Isaiah 60:1, 2.”  Among English Interpreters WALTON advises that here a citation of the text of Isaiah 60:1, or an allusion to the same, obtains.  HAMMOND thus παραφράζει/ paraphrases our verse:  “Verse 14:  According to the saying of Isaiah the Prophet, Isaiah 60:1, Arise, shine, for thy light is come, and the glory of the Lord is risen upon thee.  As it is signified that Christianity is the brightest day, as it were, the light and promises of which everyone will long to enjoy; it is fitting that there be a rejection of all dark and hidden lusts, of which men are ashamed in the open light.”  From whom LE CLERC does not dissent in his own Note:  “Διὸ λέγει, wherefore it/he saith:  γραφὴ/Scripture is to be understood, so that the passage in Isaiah might be indicated, cited paraphrastically in our text; the sense of which, rather than the words, is cited.”  Francis Junius is closely followed by WILLEM SURENHUSIUS in his Βίβλῳ Καταλλαγῆς, which see. The Reverend DAVID MARTIN thinks that the words were borrowed by the Apostle partly from Isaiah 26:19, and partly from Isaiah 60:1.  But again, that this Pauline pericope was fetched only from Isaiah 60:1, in view of the fact it approaches most nearly to the truth, is held by Reverend DINANT in his Commentari Belgico on Epistola ad Ephesios.

[1] William Estius (1542-1613) labored first as a lecturer on Divinity, then as the Chancellor at Doway.  Theologically, he bears the imprint of the modified Augustinianism of Michael Baius.  In his commentary writing, as exemplified in his Commentarii in Sacram Scripturam and Commentarii in Epistolas Apostolicas, he focuses on the literal meaning of the text; and he is widely regarded for his exegetical skill and judgment.

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